Constitutional documents

constitutional documentconstitutive documentsCorporate constitutional documentsDeclarationmemorandum and articles of associationmemorandum or articles of association
In relation to juristic persons, the constitutional documents (sometimes referred to as the charter documents) of the entity are the documents which define the existence of the entity and regulate the structure and control of the entity and its members.wikipedia
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Shareholders' agreement

shareholder agreementshareholders agreementSHA
It is quite common for members of a company to supplement the corporate constitution with additional arrangements, such as shareholders' agreements, whereby they agree to exercise their membership rights in a certain way.
In strict legal theory, the relationships amongst the shareholders and those between the shareholders and the company are regulated by the constitutional documents of the company.

Memorandum of association

memorandummemorandum & articles of associationMoA
the Memorandum of Association (in some countries referred to as the Articles of Incorporation) is the primary document, and will generally regulate the company's activities with the outside world, such as the company's objects and powers.
Constitutional documents

Articles of association

articlesdeed of settlementMemorandum and Articles of Association
the Articles of Association (in some countries referred to as the by-laws) is the secondary document, and will generally regulate the company's internal affairs and management, such as procedures for board meetings, dividend entitlements etc.
Under the new legislation, the articles of association will become the single constitutional document for a UK company, and will subsume the majority of the role previously filled by the separate memorandum of association.

By-law

bylawsbylawby-laws
the Articles of Association (in some countries referred to as the by-laws) is the secondary document, and will generally regulate the company's internal affairs and management, such as procedures for board meetings, dividend entitlements etc.
Constitutional documents

Juridical person

legal entityjuristic personlegal entities
In relation to juristic persons, the constitutional documents (sometimes referred to as the charter documents) of the entity are the documents which define the existence of the entity and regulate the structure and control of the entity and its members.

Common law

common-lawcommoncourts of common law
By convention, most common law jurisdictions divide the constitutional documents of companies into two separate documents:

Company

companiesenterpriseenterprises
By convention, most common law jurisdictions divide the constitutional documents of companies into two separate documents:

Civil law (legal system)

civil lawcivilcivil law system
In civil law jurisdictions, the company's constitution is normally consolidated into a single document, often called the charter.

Charter

charter membercharter of incorporationcharters
In civil law jurisdictions, the company's constitution is normally consolidated into a single document, often called the charter.

Voting trust

pooling agreementvoting trusts
Another common method of supplementing the corporate constitution is by means of voting trusts, although these are relatively uncommon outside of the United States and certain offshore jurisdictions.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Another common method of supplementing the corporate constitution is by means of voting trusts, although these are relatively uncommon outside of the United States and certain offshore jurisdictions.

Offshore financial centre

offshoreoffshore financial centresoffshore financial centers
Another common method of supplementing the corporate constitution is by means of voting trusts, although these are relatively uncommon outside of the United States and certain offshore jurisdictions.

Articles of incorporation

corporate charterAct of Incorporationarticles of association
the Memorandum of Association (in some countries referred to as the Articles of Incorporation) is the primary document, and will generally regulate the company's activities with the outside world, such as the company's objects and powers.

Board of directors

board of trusteesdirectorboard
the Articles of Association (in some countries referred to as the by-laws) is the secondary document, and will generally regulate the company's internal affairs and management, such as procedures for board meetings, dividend entitlements etc.

Dividend

dividendsstock dividendcash dividend
the Articles of Association (in some countries referred to as the by-laws) is the secondary document, and will generally regulate the company's internal affairs and management, such as procedures for board meetings, dividend entitlements etc.

Articles of partnership

partnership agreementcompany agreementpartnership
Partnerships also have constitutional documents in the form of a partnership agreement.

Limited liability partnership

LLPlimited liability partnershipsLLPs
In some jurisdictions, a more formal constitution, sometimes referred to as articles of partnership or a partnership deed is used (particularly where the partnership has certain corporate aspects, such as a Limited Liability Partnership).

Trust law

trusttrust fundtrusts
A trust is not a separate legal entity as such, but is often treated as one for certain legal purposes.

Trust instrument

deed of trusttrust deedtrust deeds
Like partnerships, trusts are not normally required to have a written trust instrument to constitute them, although most large and formal trusts do.

Unincorporated association

unincorporated associationsnot incorporatedunincorporated
An unincorporated association may also have a constitution which provides for the rights and remedies of the members as between themselves, and governs the conduct of the association.

Companies Act 2006

Companies Act20062006 Act
1) S171 to act within their powers - to abide by the terms of the company's memorandum and articles of association and decisions made by the shareholders;

Pre-emption right

right of pre-emptionpre-emptionpre-emption rights
In many jurisdictions, subscription rights are automatically provided for by statute, for example the UK, but in other jurisdictions it only arises if provided for under the constitutional documents of the relevant company, for example the US. In such countries shareholder rights are often violated leading to proceedings at the Court of Justice of the European Union.

Document

documentsrecordsrecord
Government, law, and politics: application, brief, certificate, commission, constitutional document, form, gazette, identity document, license, summons, and white paper

Bonus share

bonus issuebonus shares
Depending upon the constitutional documents of the company, only certain classes of shares may be entitled to bonus issues, or may be entitled to bonus issues in preference to other classes.

Share (finance)

sharessharestock
Shares authorized include both issued (by the board of directors or shareholders) and unissued but authorized by the company's constitutional documents.