A report on Constitutionalism

Magna Carta of England (the "Great Charter") created in 1215 is regarded as one of the greatest constitutional documents of all times.
Supreme Court of the United States
Parliament of the United Kingdom

Limited by a body of fundamental law".

- Constitutionalism
Magna Carta of England (the "Great Charter") created in 1215 is regarded as one of the greatest constitutional documents of all times.

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Constitution of 3 May 1791

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Constitution adopted by the Great Sejm for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Constitution adopted by the Great Sejm for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Constitution of 3 May 1791, by Matejko. Foreground: King Stanisław August (left) enters St John's Cathedral, in Warsaw, where deputies will swear to uphold the Constitution. Background: the Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
King Stanisław August Poniatowski, principal author of the Constitution of 3 May 1791. A year later, he acquiesced in its demise; this was seen by Constitution defenders as high treason, per the Constitution's Article VII and section six (sexto) of Article VIII, and per the Declaration of the Assembled Estates, of 5 May 1791.
In September 1773, Tadeusz Rejtan (on floor, lower right) tries to prevent ratification of the First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by barring other Sejm deputies from entering the Sejm chamber. Painting Rejtan, by Matejko.
From his election, King Stanisław August Poniatowski worked to develop an executive government council. In 1775 the Partition Sejm established a Permanent Council, after Russia's Catherine the Great concluded it would serve her purposes.
Senate Chamber of Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution of 3 May 1791 was adopted. Painting by Kazimierz Wojniakowski, 1806.
Royal Castle Senate Chamber, reconstructed after destruction in World War II
3 May Constitution, printed in Warsaw, 1791
Manuscript of the 3 May Constitution in Lithuanian
English edition, London, 1791
Ruined chapel containing cornerstone for Temple of Divine Providence, laid 3 May 1792 by King Stanisław August Poniatowski and his brother, the Catholic Primate of Poland Michał Jerzy Poniatowski, to commemorate the Constitution of 3 May 1791. Work on Temple had only begun when Poland was invaded by Russian Imperial Army. Chapel is now within Warsaw University Botanical Garden.
Medal commemorating the Constitution of 3 May 1791, issued that year

Polish constitutionalism can be traced to the 13th century, when government by consensus and representation was already well established in the young Polish state.

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

Constitution

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Aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

Aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
Magna Carta
United States Constitution

350 BC) was the first to make a formal distinction between ordinary law and constitutional law, establishing ideas of constitution and constitutionalism, and attempting to classify different forms of constitutional government.

Earl Warren

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American lawyer, politician, and jurist who served as the 14th Chief Justice of the United States from 1953 to 1969.

American lawyer, politician, and jurist who served as the 14th Chief Justice of the United States from 1953 to 1969.

Warren as a U.S. Army officer in 1918
The René C. Davidson Courthouse, the main courthouse of the Alameda County Superior Court, completed in 1934
California Attorney General
Warren as Governor of California
Governor Warren meets a young "gold miner" as part of the California centennials, 1948–50
Chief Justice Earl Warren
The Warren Court (1953–1969)
President Kennedy, Jacqueline Kennedy, Chief Justice Earl Warren, and Nina Elisabeth Meyers (Warren's wife), November 1963
An "Impeach Earl Warren sign", posted in San Francisco in October 1958
Earl Warren presents the Commission's report to President Johnson on September 24, 1964.
Chief Justice Warren swears in President Nixon on January 20, 1969.
Grave at Arlington National Cemetery
Warren bust, U.S. Supreme Court
Earl Warren Hall, University of California, Berkeley
Earl Warren Building, headquarters of California Supreme Court (San Francisco)

The Warren Court presided over a major shift in American constitutional jurisprudence, which has been recognized by many as a "Constitutional Revolution" in the liberal direction, with Warren writing the majority opinions in landmark cases such as Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Reynolds v. Sims (1964), Miranda v. Arizona (1966) and Loving v. Virginia (1967).

Chief Justice Earl Warren

Warren Court

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The period in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States during which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice.

The period in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States during which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice.

Chief Justice Earl Warren
Chief Justice Earl Warren
The Supreme Court as was composed between 1958 and 1962. Top (l-r): Charles E. Whittaker, John M. Harlan, William J. Brennan, Jr., Potter Stewart. Bottom (l-r): William O. Douglas, Hugo L. Black, Earl Warren, Felix Frankfurter, Tom C. Clark.
A photo taken shortly after Justice Goldberg joined the Court. Top (l-r): Byron White, William J. Brennan Jr., Potter Stewart, and Arthur Goldberg Bottom (l-r): Tom C. Clark, Hugo Black, Earl Warren, William O. Douglas, and John Marshall Harlan II. These court members served together from 1962-1965

It has been widely recognized that the court, led by the liberal bloc, has created a major "Constitutional Revolution" in the history of United States.

David Fellman

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David Fellman (1907 – 2003) was a political scientist and constitutional scholar and advocate for academic freedom.

Percent of self-identified liberals in the United States broken down by state according to Gallup, August 2010; darker colors mean more liberals per state (click image for details)

Liberalism in the United States

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Political and moral philosophy based on concepts of unalienable rights of the individual.

Political and moral philosophy based on concepts of unalienable rights of the individual.

Percent of self-identified liberals in the United States broken down by state according to Gallup, August 2010; darker colors mean more liberals per state (click image for details)

According to Ian Adams, "all US parties are liberal and always have been. Essentially they espouse classical liberalism, that is a form of democratized Whig constitutionalism plus the free market. The point of difference comes with the influence of social liberalism and the proper role of government.

Sejm session at the Royal Castle, Warsaw, 1622

Liberum veto

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Parliamentary device in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Parliamentary device in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Sejm session at the Royal Castle, Warsaw, 1622

Political scientist Dalibor Roháč noted that the "principle of liberum veto played an important role in [the] emergence of the unique Polish form of constitutionalism" and acted as a significant constraint on the powers of the monarch by making the "rule of law, religious tolerance and limited constitutional government... the norm in Poland in times when the rest of Europe was being devastated by religious hatred and despotism."

Constitutionalist (UK)

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Label used by some British politicians standing for Parliament in the 1920s, instead of the more traditional party labels.

Label used by some British politicians standing for Parliament in the 1920s, instead of the more traditional party labels.

The term had nothing to do with Constitutionalism in the philosophical sense.