Construction of Rockefeller Center

construction of the Rockefeller CenterconstructionXYZ BuildingsAssociated Architectsconception, planning, and buildingconstruct Rockefeller Centerdevelopeddevelopment of the present-day Rockefeller Center sitefinancing, development, and constructionthe complex's construction
The construction of the Rockefeller Center complex in New York City was conceived as an urban renewal project in the late 1920s, spearheaded by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to help revitalize Midtown Manhattan.wikipedia
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Center Theatre (New York City)

Center TheatreRKO Roxy TheatreCenter Theater
The Center Theatre from the original complex was demolished in 1954.
The Center Theatre was originally called the RKO Roxy Theatre and built as part of the construction of the Rockefeller Center.

John D. Rockefeller Jr.

John D. Rockefeller, Jr.RockefellerJohn Davison Rockefeller Jr.
The construction of the Rockefeller Center complex in New York City was conceived as an urban renewal project in the late 1920s, spearheaded by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to help revitalize Midtown Manhattan.
During the Great Depression, he was involved in the financing, development, and construction of the Rockefeller Center, a vast office complex in midtown Manhattan, and as a result became one of the largest real estate holders in New York City.

Wallace Harrison

Wallace K. HarrisonCorbett, Harrison & MacMurrayHarrison
He hired Todd, Robertson, and Todd as design consultants and selected the architectural firms of Corbett, Harrison & MacMurray, Hood, Godley & Fouilhoux, and Reinhard & Hofmeister for the opera complex.
Harrison started his professional career with the firm of Corbett, Harrison & MacMurray, participating in the construction of Rockefeller Center.

Metropolitan Opera

New York Metropolitan OperaMetropolitan Opera OrchestraThe Metropolitan Opera
Around that time, the Metropolitan Opera (Met) was looking for a new site for their opera house, and architect Benjamin Wistar Morris decided on the former Columbia site.
In 1926, as part of the construction of Rockefeller Center, a plan was floated to move the opera from the building on 39th Street to the new Rockefeller Center.

30 Rockefeller Plaza

GE BuildingRCA Building30 Rockefeller Center
The complex would also contain three tall buildings in the center of each block, including a 60-story building in the center block for RCA (the current 30 Rockefeller Plaza).
The construction of Rockefeller Center occurred between 1932 and 1940 on land that John D. Rockefeller Jr. leased from Columbia University.

Rockefeller family

RockefellersRockefellerDavid Rockefeller, Jr.
On May 21, 1928, Morris presented the project during a dinner for potential investors, at which the Rockefeller family's public relations adviser Ivy Lee was a guest.
The ceremony coincided with an exhibition on the family's contributions to the built environment, including John Sr.'s preservation efforts for the Hudson River Palisades, the restoration of Williamsburg, Virginia, construction of Rockefeller Center, and Governor Nelson's efforts to construct low- and middle-income housing in New York state.

David Hosack

The land remained in city ownership until 1801, when the physician David Hosack, a member of the New York elite, purchased a parcel of land in what is now Midtown for $5,000, equivalent to $ in dollars.
Elgin Botanic Garden was abandoned and eventually fell into decay, and Columbia ultimately leased the land to John D. Rockefeller, Jr. in the 1920s for the construction of Rockefeller Center.

St. Nicholas Collegiate Reformed Protestant Dutch Church

St. Nicholas ChurchCollegiate Church of St. NicholasSt Nicholas Collegiate Church
Columbia built a new campus near its Upper Estate in 1856, selling a plot at Fifth Avenue and 48th Street to the St. Nicholas Church to pay for construction.
In the 1920s, during the construction of Rockefeller Center, the governing body of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Churches of New York considered putting the church up for sale, which prompted an early preservation campaign in New York with the Rev. Dr, Joseph R. Sizoo, the church's minister, arguing that the church was "a shrine" and its sale would put the dollar sign before the cross.

Rockefeller Center

Rockefeller PlazaSimon & Schuster Building30 Rockefeller Plaza
The construction of the Rockefeller Center complex in New York City was conceived as an urban renewal project in the late 1920s, spearheaded by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to help revitalize Midtown Manhattan. Gaston Lachaise, a renowned painter of female nudes, executed the commission for six uncontroversial bas-reliefs for Rockefeller Center, four at the front of 1230 Avenue of the Americas (RCA Building West) and two at the back of the International Building.
Construction of Rockefeller Center started in 1931, and the first buildings opened in 1933.

Ivy Lee

Ivy Ledbetter Lee
On May 21, 1928, Morris presented the project during a dinner for potential investors, at which the Rockefeller family's public relations adviser Ivy Lee was a guest.
Lee guided public relations of Rockefellers and their corporate interests, including a strong involvement in the construction of the Rockefeller Center, even after he moved on to set up his own consulting firm.

Radio City Music Hall

Radio CityNew York CityRadio City Music Hall Ballet Company
Ezra Winter, who created the "Quest for the Fountains of Eternal Youth" mural in Radio City Music Hall's lobby, largely adhered to Alexander's original specifications for the mural.
The opera house plans were canceled in 1929, leading to the construction of Rockefeller Center.

International Building (Rockefeller Center)

International BuildingPalazzo d'Italia
Gaston Lachaise, a renowned painter of female nudes, executed the commission for six uncontroversial bas-reliefs for Rockefeller Center, four at the front of 1230 Avenue of the Americas (RCA Building West) and two at the back of the International Building.
The International Building and its wings were built as part of the construction of the Rockefeller Center, and an oval-shaped retail building was originally planned for the adjacent block to the south, between 49th and 50th Streets.

La Maison Francaise (Rockefeller Center)

La Maison Francaise610 Fifth AvenueLa Maison Française
In February 1932, French tenants agreed to occupy the British Empire Building's twin to the north, La Maison Française.
The building was part of the original construction of the Rockefeller Center, with an oval-shaped retail building originally planned for the block.

Elgin Botanic Garden

Elgin Botanical Garden
Hosack opened the Elgin Botanic Garden, the country's first public botanical garden, on the site in 1804.
In late 1928, Columbia University agreed to lease a three-block portion of the land to John D. Rockefeller Jr. for the construction of Rockefeller Center, in return for approximately $3.5 million annual rent until 1952, followed by options for three 21-year renewals.

Man at the Crossroads

Man, Controller of the UniversemuralLenin controversy in New York.
His painting, Man at the Crossroads, became controversial, as it contained Moscow May Day scenes and a clear portrait of Lenin, which had not been apparent in initial sketches (see .) Nelson issued a written warning to Rivera to replace the offending figure with an anonymous face, but Rivera refused, so in mid-1933, Rivera was paid for his commission and workers covered the mural with paper.
John D. Rockefeller Jr., a businessman and member of the Rockefeller family, was heavily involved in the 1930s construction of Rockefeller Center.

Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree

Christmas in Rockefeller CenterChristmas at Rockefeller Center75th Rockefeller Christmas Tree
In December 1933, workers erected the complex's famed Christmas tree in the center of the plaza for the first time.
The first Christmas tree at Rockefeller Center was erected in 1931, during the Depression-era construction of Rockefeller Center, when workers decorated a smaller 20 foot balsam fir with "strings of cranberries, garlands of paper, and even a few tin cans" on Christmas Eve.

47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center station

47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center47th–50th Streets47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center (IND Sixth Avenue Line)
Since the IND would be constructing a station at 47th–50th Streets, near the complex, Rockefeller Center's managers also wished to build their own connections to Penn Station and Grand Central using the subway tunnels that were being constructed.
Rockefeller Center's underground mall, built in 1935 as part of the complex's construction, contains passageways to the station.

Webster B. Todd

Webster ToddWebster
It served as the headquarters for the main construction contractors Todd & Brown, which was composed of John Todd's son Webster as well as Joseph O. Brown.
The firm was responsible for two projects initiated by the Rockefeller family: the reconstruction of Colonial Williamsburg and the construction of Rockefeller Center.

1211 Avenue of the Americas

News Corp. Building1211
Under the plan, Esso (later renamed Exxon) would move into the northernmost tower at 1251 Avenue of the Americas, while McGraw-Hill would occupy the center tower at 1221, and Celanese would have the southernmost tower at 1211.
The building was part of the later Rockefeller Center expansion (1960s–1970s) dubbed the "XYZ Buildings".

1221 Avenue of the Americas

McGraw-Hill Building12211221 Sixth Avenue, McGraw-Hill
Under the plan, Esso (later renamed Exxon) would move into the northernmost tower at 1251 Avenue of the Americas, while McGraw-Hill would occupy the center tower at 1221, and Celanese would have the southernmost tower at 1211.
The building was part of the later Rockefeller Center expansion (1960s–1970s) dubbed the "XYZ Buildings".

1251 Avenue of the Americas

Exxon Building1251 Sixth AvenueCelanese Building
Under the plan, Esso (later renamed Exxon) would move into the northernmost tower at 1251 Avenue of the Americas, while McGraw-Hill would occupy the center tower at 1221, and Celanese would have the southernmost tower at 1211.
The building was part of the later Rockefeller Center expansion (1960s–1970s) dubbed the "XYZ Buildings".

Urban renewal

urban regenerationregenerationurban redevelopment
The construction of the Rockefeller Center complex in New York City was conceived as an urban renewal project in the late 1920s, spearheaded by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to help revitalize Midtown Manhattan.

Midtown Manhattan

MidtownEast MidtownMidtown East
The construction of the Rockefeller Center complex in New York City was conceived as an urban renewal project in the late 1920s, spearheaded by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to help revitalize Midtown Manhattan.

Columbia University

ColumbiaColumbia CollegeUniversity of Columbia
Rockefeller Center is located on one of Columbia University's former campuses and is bounded by Fifth Avenue to the east, Sixth Avenue (Avenue of the Americas) to the west, 48th Street to the south, and 51st Street to the north.

Fifth Avenue

5th AvenueFifthMuseum Mile
Rockefeller Center is located on one of Columbia University's former campuses and is bounded by Fifth Avenue to the east, Sixth Avenue (Avenue of the Americas) to the west, 48th Street to the south, and 51st Street to the north.