Continental Congress

CongressContinental CongressmanDelegate to the Continental CongressContinental Congressman from DelawareSecond Continental CongressContinentalContinental Congressmen[Continental] Congressa unified continental governmentcentral government
The Continental Congress was initially a convention of delegates from a number of British American colonies at the height of the American Revolution, acted collectively for the people of the Thirteen Colonies that ultimately became the United States of America.wikipedia
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Congress of the Confederation

Confederation CongressCongressContinental Congress
More broadly, it also refers to the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–1789, thus covering the three congressional bodies of the Thirteen Colonies and the United States that met between 1774 and the inauguration of a new government in 1789 under the United States Constitution. This body functioned as the provisional government for the U.S. until the nation's first Frame of Government, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, came into force on March 1, 1781, at which time it became the Congress of the Confederation.
The Congress continued to refer itself as the Continental Congress throughout its eight-year history, although modern historians separate it from the two earlier congresses, which operated under slightly different rules and procedures until the later part of American Revolutionary War.

Provisional government

interim governmenttransitional governmentprovisional
This body functioned as the provisional government for the U.S. until the nation's first Frame of Government, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, came into force on March 1, 1781, at which time it became the Congress of the Confederation.
The Continental Congress, a convention of delegates from 13 British colonies on the east coast of North America became the provisional government of the United States in 1776, during the American Revolutionary War.

Charles Thomson

Secretary of the Continental Congress
Much of what is known today about the daily activities of these congresses comes from the journals kept by the secretary for all three congresses, Charles Thomson.
Charles Thomson (November 29, 1729 – August 16, 1824) was an Irish-born Patriot leader in Philadelphia during the American Revolution, and the secretary of the Continental Congress (1774–1789) throughout its existence.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
Delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that would ultimately join in the Revolutionary War participated.
Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress (with the exception of Georgia) to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power.

Thirteen Colonies

American coloniescoloniescolonial
Delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that would ultimately join in the Revolutionary War participated. The Continental Congress was initially a convention of delegates from a number of British American colonies at the height of the American Revolution, acted collectively for the people of the Thirteen Colonies that ultimately became the United States of America.
Grievances with the British government led to the American Revolution, in which the colonies collaborated in forming the Continental Congress.

John Adams

AdamsJohnPresident John Adams
Altogether, 56 delegates attended, including George Washington, Patrick Henry, and John Adams.
Adams was a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress and became a principal leader of the Revolution.

Samuel Adams

Sam AdamsSamuelAdams
Other notable delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts Bay, along with Joseph Galloway and John Dickinson from the Pennsylvania.
Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774, at which time Adams attended the Continental Congress in Philadelphia which was convened to coordinate a colonial response.

Petition to the King

petitioned the kingPetition to the King (1774)petitioned Parliament
During the congress, delegates organized an economic boycott of Great Britain in protest and petitioned the King for a redress of grievances.
These punitive Acts were vehemently opposed by the colonists, leading the newly formed Continental Congress to seek redress with King George III, in an attempt to reach a common understanding.

Benjamin Franklin

Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
Among the delegates was Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia, who proposed that the colonies join together in a confederation. As the ambassador to France, Benjamin Franklin not only secured the "bridge loan" for the national budget, but he also persuaded France to send an army of about 6,000 soldiers across the Atlantic Ocean to America—and also to dispatch a large squadron of French warships under Comte de Grasse to the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina.
The College was to become influential in guiding the founding documents of the United States: in the Continental Congress, for example, over one third of the college-affiliated men who contributed the Declaration of Independence between September 4, 1774, and July 4, 1776, were affiliated with the College.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
More broadly, it also refers to the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–1789, thus covering the three congressional bodies of the Thirteen Colonies and the United States that met between 1774 and the inauguration of a new government in 1789 under the United States Constitution. In addition to their slowness, the lack of coercive power in the Continental Congress was harshly criticized by James Madison when arguing for the need of a Federal Constitution.
From September 5, 1774, to March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States.

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionConfederationArticles
This body functioned as the provisional government for the U.S. until the nation's first Frame of Government, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, came into force on March 1, 1781, at which time it became the Congress of the Confederation.
A copy was made for each state and one was kept by the Congress.

Bank of North America

De Facto Central Bank, Chartered by the Congress of the Confederation
Robert Morris, the Minister of Finance, persuaded Congress to charter the Bank of North America on December 31, 1781.
The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted on May 26, 1781, by the Continental Congress, and opened in Philadelphia on January 7, 1782.

Joseph Galloway

Galloway
Other notable delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts Bay, along with Joseph Galloway and John Dickinson from the Pennsylvania.
Galloway was a member of the Continental Congress in 1774, where he proposed a compromise plan for Union with Great Britain which would provide the colonies with their own parliament subject to the Crown.

North Carolina

NCNorthState of North Carolina
As the ambassador to France, Benjamin Franklin not only secured the "bridge loan" for the national budget, but he also persuaded France to send an army of about 6,000 soldiers across the Atlantic Ocean to America—and also to dispatch a large squadron of French warships under Comte de Grasse to the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina.
On April 12, 1776, the colony became the first to instruct its delegates to the Continental Congress to vote for independence from the British Crown, through the Halifax Resolves passed by the North Carolina Provincial Congress.

Virginia

Commonwealth of VirginiaVAState of Virginia
As the ambassador to France, Benjamin Franklin not only secured the "bridge loan" for the national budget, but he also persuaded France to send an army of about 6,000 soldiers across the Atlantic Ocean to America—and also to dispatch a large squadron of French warships under Comte de Grasse to the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina.
Virginians began to coordinate their actions with other colonies in 1773, and sent delegates to the Continental Congress the following year.

President of the Continental Congress

PresidentPresident of CongressPresident of the Confederation Congress
Delegates chose a presiding president to monitor the debate, maintain order, and make sure journals were kept and documents and letters were published and delivered.
The President of the Continental Congress, later known as the President of the Congress of Confederation, was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates that emerged as the first (transitional) national government of the United States during the American Revolution.

John Dickinson

Dickinson[John] DickinsonJohn Dickinson (delegate)
Other notable delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts Bay, along with Joseph Galloway and John Dickinson from the Pennsylvania.
When the Continental Congress began the debate on the Declaration of Independence on July 1, 1776, Dickinson reiterated his opposition to declaring independence at that time.

New York (state)

New YorkNew York StateNY
The Stamp Act Congress met in the city on October 19 of that year, composed of representatives from across the Thirteen Colonies who set the stage for the Continental Congress to follow.

Stamp Act Congress

Stamp Act Congress Delegate
To present a united front in their opposition, delegates from several provinces met in the Stamp Act Congress, which convened in New York City from October 7 through 25, 1765.

James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James Madison
In addition to their slowness, the lack of coercive power in the Continental Congress was harshly criticized by James Madison when arguing for the need of a Federal Constitution.
Born into a prominent Virginia planter family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War.

Olive Branch Petition

final attempt to avert warpetitioning the kingpetitions to the Crown for intervention with Parliament
The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775 and signed on July 8 in a final attempt to avoid war between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies in America.

Term limits in the United States

term limitsterm-limitedterm limited
This high rate of turnover was not just a characteristic, it was due to a deliberate policy of term limits.
The Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, established term limits for the delegates to the Continental Congress, mandating in Article V that "no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years."

Stamp Act 1765

Stamp ActStamp Act of 17651765 Stamp Act
In 1765, the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act requiring that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.
The Stamp Act Congress was a predecessor to the later Continental Congresses, notably the Second Continental Congress which oversaw the establishment of American independence.

Continental Marines

MarinesColonial marinesContinental Marine Corps
The Corps was formed by the Continental Congress on November 10, 1775 and was disbanded in 1783.

Flag of the United States

American flagStars and StripesUnited States flag
At the time of the Declaration of Independence in July 1776, the Continental Congress would not legally adopt flags with "stars, white in a blue field" for another year.