Contract Clause

Contracts Clausegold and silver clauseimpairing contractsobligation of contractsObligation of Contracts Clauseany ... law impairing the obligation of contracts.Article I, Section 10Constitution's Contract ClausecontractContract Impairment Clause
The Contract Clause appears in the United States Constitution, Article I, section 10, clause 1:wikipedia
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Dartmouth College v. Woodward

Dartmouth College caseTrustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward1819 ''Dartmouth'' case
Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. (4 Wheat.) 518 (1819), was a landmark decision in United States corporate law from the United States Supreme Court dealing with the application of the Contracts Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations.

Ogden v. Saunders

The main issue of the case was whether or not the New York law violated the Obligation of Contracts Clause of the Constitution.

Contract

contract lawcontractsagreement
The US Constitution contains a Contract Clause, but this has been interpreted as only restricting the retroactive impairment of contracts.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
The Contract Clause appears in the United States Constitution, Article I, section 10, clause 1:

Legal tender

demonetizeddemonetizationdemonetised
Such papers do not need to be legal tender.

Marshal

city marshaltown marshalmarshals
Relying on this clause, the Supreme Court has held that the creditors should be paid in gold or silver, when the marshal of a state court seizes the property (bank notes) of the debtor within (a discharge of) an execution.

Bill of attainder

Act of Attainderbills of attainderattainted
Statutes passed after the Civil War with the intent and result of excluding persons who had aided the Confederacy from following certain callings, by the device of requiring them to take an oath that they had never given such aid, were held invalid as being bills of attainder, as well as ex post facto laws.

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionConfederationArticles
The Framers of the Constitution added this clause in response to the fear that states would continue a practice that had been widespread under the Articles of Confederation—that of granting "private relief."

Bankruptcy

bankruptbankruptcy protectionbankruptcies
It was this phenomenon that also prompted the framers to make bankruptcy law the province of the federal government.

Federal government of the United States

United States governmentU.S. governmentfederal government
It was this phenomenon that also prompted the framers to make bankruptcy law the province of the federal government.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
Federalists, especially Alexander Hamilton, believed that such a practice would jeopardize the future flow of foreign capital into the fledgling United States.

New Deal

The New DealHundred Days Congressfirst hundred days
During the New Deal Era, the Supreme Court began to depart from the Lochner era constitutional interpretation of the Commerce Clause, Due Process, and the Contract Clause.

Lochner era

Lochner'' eraLochnerismthe years following Lochner
During the New Deal Era, the Supreme Court began to depart from the Lochner era constitutional interpretation of the Commerce Clause, Due Process, and the Contract Clause.

Commerce Clause

interstate commerceInterstate Commerce Clauseinterstate
During the New Deal Era, the Supreme Court began to depart from the Lochner era constitutional interpretation of the Commerce Clause, Due Process, and the Contract Clause.

Due process

due process of lawDue Process Clausejudicial procedure
During the New Deal Era, the Supreme Court began to depart from the Lochner era constitutional interpretation of the Commerce Clause, Due Process, and the Contract Clause.

Home Building & Loan Ass'n v. Blaisdell

Home Building & Loan Association v. BlaisdellHome Building & Loan Assn. v. Blaisdell
In Home Building & Loan Association v. Blaisdell, the Supreme Court upheld a Minnesota law that temporarily restricted the ability of mortgage holders to foreclose.

Minnesota

MNState of MinnesotaMinnesota, USA
In Home Building & Loan Association v. Blaisdell, the Supreme Court upheld a Minnesota law that temporarily restricted the ability of mortgage holders to foreclose.

Foreclosure

foreclosedforecloseforeclosures
In Home Building & Loan Association v. Blaisdell, the Supreme Court upheld a Minnesota law that temporarily restricted the ability of mortgage holders to foreclose.

Police power (United States constitutional law)

police powerpolice powerspolice power of the state
The kind of contract modification performed by the law in question was arguably similar to the kind that the Framers intended to prohibit, but the Supreme Court held that this law was a valid exercise of the state's police power, and that the temporary nature of the contract modification and the emergency of the situation justified the law.

Rational basis review

rational basisrational basis testRational basis scrutiny
This test is similar to rational basis review.

World Trade Center (1973–2001)

World Trade CenterTwin TowersWorld Trade Center Towers
In this case, New Jersey had issued bonds to finance the World Trade Center and had contractually promised the bondholders that the collateral would not be used to finance money-losing rail operations.

Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge

Proprietors of Charles River Bridge v. Proprietors of Warren BridgeProprietors of the Charles River Bridge v. Proprietors of Warren Bridge

United States constitutional law

constitutional lawU.S. constitutional lawAmerican constitutional law
In this role, for example, the Court has struck down state laws for failing to conform to the Contract Clause (see, e.g., Dartmouth College v. Woodward) or the Equal Protection Clause (see, e.g., Brown v. Board of Education), and it has invalidated federal laws for failing to arise under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution (see, e.g., United States v. Lopez).