Controlled Substances Act

Schedule ISchedule IISchedule IIIControlled Substance ActSchedule IVSchedule I controlled substancescheduledControlled Substances Act of 1970schedule II controlled substanceSchedule 1
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.wikipedia
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91st United States Congress

91st91st CongressNinety-first
It was passed by the 91st United States Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon.

Drug Enforcement Administration

DEAUnited States Drug Enforcement AdministrationU.S. Drug Enforcement Administration
Two federal agencies, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), determine which substances are added to or removed from the various schedules, although the statute passed by Congress created the initial listing.
The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act, sharing concurrent jurisdiction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961Schedule ISingle Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961
The Act also served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The Cato Institute's Handbook for Congress calls for repealing the CSA, an action that would likely bring the United States into conflict with international law, were the United States not to exercise its sovereign right to withdraw from and/or abrogate the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and/or the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances prior to repealing the Controlled Substances Act.
In particular, the United States' Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and the United Kingdom's Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 were designed to fulfill treaty obligations.

Michael Sonnenreich

Michael R. Sonnenreich
With the help of White House Counsel head, John Dean; the Executive Director of the Shafer Commission, Michael Sonnenreich; and the Director of the BNDD, John Ingersoll creating and writing the legislation, Mitchell was able to present Nixon with the bill.
He is notable for co-creating the Controlled Substances Act while serving as the Executive Director of the Shafer Commission.

Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970

Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control ActControlled Substances Act of 1970
It was passed by the 91st United States Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation of the government's fight against the abuse of drugs and other substances.

Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act

controlsThe Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988
The Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 was an amendment to the Controlled Substances Act to regulate precursor chemicals, essential chemicals, tableting machines, and encapsulating machines by imposing record keeping and import/export reporting requirements on transactions involving these materials.

Federal Analogue Act

Federal Analog Actcontrolled substance analogueAnalog Act
The Federal Analogue Act, is a section of the United States Controlled Substances Act passed in 1986 which allowed any chemical "substantially similar" to a controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II to be treated as if it were listed in Schedule I, but only if intended for human consumption.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
Two federal agencies, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), determine which substances are added to or removed from the various schedules, although the statute passed by Congress created the initial listing. Then, HHS solicits information from the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration and evaluations and recommendations from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and, on occasion, from the scientific and medical community at large.
Other significant laws enforced by the FDA include the Public Health Service Act, parts of the Controlled Substances Act, the Federal Anti-Tampering Act, as well as many others.

Psychotropic Substances Act (United States)

Psychotropic Substances ActPsychotropic Substances Act of 1978
The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 amended the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and Controlled Substances Act to ensure compliance with the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

Schedule IVamphetamine-type stimulantsSchedule I
The Cato Institute's Handbook for Congress calls for repealing the CSA, an action that would likely bring the United States into conflict with international law, were the United States not to exercise its sovereign right to withdraw from and/or abrogate the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and/or the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances prior to repealing the Controlled Substances Act.
In 1970, the United States completely revamped its existing drug control laws by enacting the Controlled Substances Act (amended in 1978 by the Psychotropic Substances Act, which allows the U.S. drug control Schedules to be updated as needed to comply with the Convention).

Methamphetamine

crystal methmethcrystal methamphetamine
In addition to the CSA, due to pseudoephedrine (PSE) and ephedrine being widely used in the manufacture of methamphetamine, the U.S. Congress passed the Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act which places restrictions on the sale of any medicine containing pseudoephedrine.
As methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under Schedule II in the United States.

National Institute on Drug Abuse

National Institute of Drug AbuseNIDADrug Abuse
Then, HHS solicits information from the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration and evaluations and recommendations from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and, on occasion, from the scientific and medical community at large.
The physical/psychological addiction dichotomy is reflected in the Controlled Substances Act's criteria for drug scheduling.

Shafer Commission

National Commission on Marijuana and Drug AbuseNational Commission on Marihuana and Drug AbusePresident's Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse
With the help of White House Counsel head, John Dean; the Executive Director of the Shafer Commission, Michael Sonnenreich; and the Director of the BNDD, John Ingersoll creating and writing the legislation, Mitchell was able to present Nixon with the bill.
While the Controlled Substances Act was being drafted in a House committee in 1970, Assistant Secretary of Health Roger O. Egeberg had recommended that marijuana temporarily be placed in Schedule I, the most restrictive category of drugs, pending the Commission's report.

Substance abuse

drug abusedrug useabuse
In the U.S., drugs have been legally classified into five categories, schedule I, II, III, IV, or V in the Controlled Substances Act.

Uniform Controlled Substances Act

While it was being drafted, the Uniform Controlled Substances Act, to be passed by state legislatures, was also being drafted by the Department of Justice; its wording closely mirrored the Controlled Substances Act.
The Uniform Controlled Substances Act was drafted by the United States Department of Justice in 1969 and promulgated by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws while the federal Controlled Substances Act was being drafted.

Sodium oxybate

Xyremsodium ''gamma''-hydroxybutyrate
Congress has sometimes scheduled other substances through legislation such as the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Prevention Act of 2000, which placed gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in Schedule I and sodium oxybate (the isolated sodium salt in GHB) in Schedule III.
The clinical trials for narcolepsy were conducted just as abuse of GHB as a club drug and date rape drug became a matter of public concern; in 2000 GHB was made a Schedule I controlled substance, while sodium oxybate, when used under an FDA NDA or IND, was classified as a Schedule III controlled substance for medicinal use under the Controlled Substances Act, with illicit use subject to Schedule I penalties.

Cathinone

L -Cathinonedrug
Circa 1993, the DEA added cathinone to the Controlled Substances Act's Schedule I.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic ActFood, Drug and Cosmetic ActFederal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
Others were the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938), and the Kefauver Harris Amendment of 1962.

Psychedelic therapy

psychedelic psychotherapypsychedelicpsycholytic therapy
Studies on medicinal applications of psychedelics ceased entirely in the United States when the Controlled Substances Act was passed in 1970.

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine

DMTdimethyltryptamineN'',''N''-Dimethyltryptamine
*United States – DMT is classified in the United States as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970.

Lisdexamfetamine

Vyvanselisdexamfetamine dimesylatelisdexamphetamine
It is a Schedule II controlled substance in the United Kingdom and a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.

Stimulant

stimulantspsychostimulantpsychostimulants
Briefly used by some psychotherapists as an adjunct to therapy, the drug became popular recreationally and the DEA listed MDMA as a Schedule I controlled substance, prohibiting most medical studies and applications.

Death of Samantha Reid

Samantha ReidHillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Prevention Act of 2000
Congress has sometimes scheduled other substances through legislation such as the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Prevention Act of 2000, which placed gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in Schedule I and sodium oxybate (the isolated sodium salt in GHB) in Schedule III.
This law categorized GHB as a Schedule I controlled substance according to the Controlled Substance Act.

Ibogaine

iboga alkaloidsTabernanthe
In the late 1960s, the World Health Assembly classified ibogaine as a “substance likely to cause dependency or endanger human health”; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assigned it Schedule I classification, and the International Olympic Committee banned it as a potential doping agent.