Controlled Substances Act

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The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.wikipedia
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91st United States Congress

91st91st CongressNinety-first
It was passed by the 91st United States Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon.
October 27, 1970: Controlled Substances Act,

Drug Enforcement Administration

DEAD.E.A.DEA agent
Two federal agencies, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), determine which substances are added to or removed from the various schedules, although the statute passed by Congress created the initial listing.
The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act, sharing concurrent jurisdiction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961Schedule IUN conventions
The Act also served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.
In particular, the United States' Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and the United Kingdom's Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 were designed to fulfill treaty obligations.

Michael Sonnenreich

Michael R. Sonnenreich
With the help of White House Counsel head, John Dean; the Executive Director of the Shafer Commission, Michael Sonnenreich; and the Director of the BNDD, John Ingersoll creating and writing the legislation, Mitchell was able to present Nixon with the bill.
He is notable for co-creating the Controlled Substances Act while serving as the Executive Director of the Shafer Commission.

Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970

Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control ActControlled Substances Act of 1970
It was passed by the 91st United States Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation of the government's fight against the abuse of drugs and other substances.

Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act

controlsThe Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988
5) The 1988 Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act (implemented August 1, 1989 as Article 12) added provisions implementing the [[United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances]] that went into force on November 11, 1990.
The Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 was an amendment to the Controlled Substances Act to regulate precursor chemicals, essential chemicals, tableting machines, and encapsulating machines by imposing record keeping and import/export reporting requirements on transactions involving these materials.

Federal Analogue Act

controlled substance analoguecontrolled substance analoguesanalogue act
4) The 1986 Federal Analog Act for chemicals "substantially similar" in Schedule I and II to be listed
The Federal Analogue Act, is a section of the United States Controlled Substances Act passed in 1986 which allowed any chemical "substantially similar" to a controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II to be treated as if it were also listed in those schedules, but only if intended for human consumption.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
Two federal agencies, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), determine which substances are added to or removed from the various schedules, although the statute passed by Congress created the initial listing. Then, HHS solicits information from the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration and evaluations and recommendations from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and, on occasion, from the scientific and medical community at large.
Other significant laws enforced by the FDA include the Public Health Service Act, parts of the Controlled Substances Act, the Federal Anti-Tampering Act, as well as many others.

Psychotropic Substances Act (United States)

Psychotropic Substances ActPsychotropic Substances Act of 1978
2) The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 added provisions implementing the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 amended the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and Controlled Substances Act to ensure compliance with the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

Schedule IVSchedule IUnited Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances
2) The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 added provisions implementing the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
In 1970, the United States completely revamped its existing drug control laws by enacting the Controlled Substances Act (amended in 1978 by the Psychotropic Substances Act, which allows the U.S. drug control Schedules to be updated as needed to comply with the Convention).

Methamphetamine

crystal methmethcrystal methamphetamine
7) The 1993 Domestic Chemical Diversion and Control Act (effective on April 16, 1994) in response to methamphetamine trafficking.
As methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under Schedule II in the United States.

National Institute on Drug Abuse

NIDANational Institute of Drug AbuseDrug Abuse
Then, HHS solicits information from the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration and evaluations and recommendations from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and, on occasion, from the scientific and medical community at large.
The physical/psychological addiction dichotomy is reflected in the Controlled Substances Act's criteria for drug scheduling.

Shafer Commission

With the help of White House Counsel head, John Dean; the Executive Director of the Shafer Commission, Michael Sonnenreich; and the Director of the BNDD, John Ingersoll creating and writing the legislation, Mitchell was able to present Nixon with the bill.
While the Controlled Substances Act was being drafted in a House committee in 1970, Assistant Secretary of Health Roger O. Egeberg had recommended that marijuana temporarily be placed in Schedule I, the most restrictive category of drugs, pending the Commission's report.

Substance abuse

drug abuseabusedrug use
1) Potential for abuse: How likely is this drug to be abused?
In the U.S., drugs have been legally classified into five categories, schedule I, II, III, IV, or V in the Controlled Substances Act.

Sodium oxybate

sodium ''gamma''-hydroxybutyrate
Congress has sometimes scheduled other substances through legislation such as the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Prevention Act of 2000, which placed gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in Schedule I and sodium oxybate (the isolated sodium salt in GHB) in Schedule III.
The clinical trials for narcolepsy were conducted just as abuse of GHB as a club drug and date rape drug became a matter of public concern; in 2000 GHB was made a Schedule I controlled substance, while sodium oxybate, when used under an FDA NDA or IND, was classified as a Schedule III controlled substance for medicinal use under the Controlled Substances Act, with illicit use subject to Schedule I penalties.

Uniform Controlled Substances Act

While it was being drafted, the Uniform Controlled Substances Act, to be passed by state legislatures, was also being drafted by the Department of Justice; its wording closely mirrored the Controlled Substances Act.
The Uniform Controlled Substances Act was drafted by the United States Department of Justice in 1969 and promulgated by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws while the federal Controlled Substances Act was being drafted.

United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs

United Nations Narcotics Commission
Similarly, if the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs adds or transfers a substance to a Schedule established by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, so that current U.S. regulations on the drug do not meet the treaty's requirements, the Secretary is required to issue a recommendation on how the substance should be scheduled under the CSA.
For instance, of the U.S. Controlled Substances Act provides that the recommendations of the Secretary of Health and Human Services in reference to drug scheduling shall be binding on the U.S. representative.

Cathinone

L -Cathinonecathinones
Cathinone, an amphetamine-like stimulant found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat).
Circa 1993, the DEA added cathinone to the Controlled Substances Act's Schedule I.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic ActFD&CFDCA
Others were the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938), and the Kefauver Harris Amendment of 1962.
Controlled Substances Act (October 27, 1970)

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine

DMTdimethyltryptamineN'',''N''-dimethyltryptamine
DMT (dimethyltryptamine), a naturally occurring psychedelic drug that is widespread throughout the plant kingdom and endogenous to the human body. DMT is the main psychoactive constituent in the psychedelic South American brew, ayahuasca, for which the UDV are granted exemption from DMT's schedule I status on the grounds of religious freedom.
* DMT is classified in the United States as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970.

Psychedelic therapy

psychedelic psychotherapypsychedelicpsycholytic therapy
MDMA ("ecstasy"), a stimulant, psychedelic, and entactogenic drug which initially garnered attention in psychedelic therapy as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The medical community originally agreed upon placing it as a Schedule III substance, but the government denied this suggestion, despite two court rulings by the DEA's administrative law judge that placing MDMA in Schedule I was illegal. It was temporarily unscheduled after the first administrative hearing from December 22, 1987 – July 1, 1988.
Studies on medicinal applications of psychedelics ceased entirely in the United States when the Controlled Substances Act was passed in 1970.

Stimulant

psychostimulantstimulantspsychostimulants
MDMA ("ecstasy"), a stimulant, psychedelic, and entactogenic drug which initially garnered attention in psychedelic therapy as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The medical community originally agreed upon placing it as a Schedule III substance, but the government denied this suggestion, despite two court rulings by the DEA's administrative law judge that placing MDMA in Schedule I was illegal. It was temporarily unscheduled after the first administrative hearing from December 22, 1987 – July 1, 1988. αMT (alpha-methyltryptamine), a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogen drug of the tryptamine class that was originally developed as an antidepressant by workers at Upjohn in the 1960s.
Briefly used by some psychotherapists as an adjunct to therapy, the drug became popular recreationally and the DEA listed MDMA as a Schedule I controlled substance, prohibiting most medical studies and applications.

Death of Samantha Reid

Samantha Reid
Congress has sometimes scheduled other substances through legislation such as the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Prevention Act of 2000, which placed gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in Schedule I and sodium oxybate (the isolated sodium salt in GHB) in Schedule III.
This law categorized GHB as a Schedule I controlled substance according to the Controlled Substance Act.

Ibogaine

iboga alkaloidsTabernathe
Ibogaine, a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the Apocynaceae family. Some countries use ibogaine as an alternative medicine treatment for drug addiction. Ibogaine is also used for medicinal and ritual purposes within African spiritual traditions of the Bwiti.
In the late 1960s the World Health Assembly classified ibogaine as a “substance likely to cause dependency or endanger human health,” the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assigned it Schedule I classification, and the International Olympic Committee banned it as a potential doping agent.