A report on Convention of Peking

Prince Gong, photographed by Felice Beato, 2 November 1860, just days after he signed the treaty on 24 October 1860.

Agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and Great Britain, France, and the Russian Empire in 1860.

- Convention of Peking
Prince Gong, photographed by Felice Beato, 2 November 1860, just days after he signed the treaty on 24 October 1860.

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Qing dynasty

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Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Italian 1682 map showing the "Kingdom of the Nüzhen" or the "Jin Tartars"
Manchu cavalry charging Ming infantry battle of Sarhu in 1619
Sura han ni chiha (Coins of Tiancong Khan) in Manchu alphabet
Dorgon (1612–1650)
Qing Empire in 1636
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662–1722)
Emperor with Manchu army in Khalkha 1688
Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Chengde, Qianlong reign; built on the model of Potala Palace, Lhasa
Campaign against the Dzungars in the Qing conquest of Xinjiang 1755–1758
Lord Macartney saluting the Qianlong Emperor
Commerce on the water, Prosperous Suzhou by Xu Yang, 1759
British Steamship destroying Chinese war junks (E. Duncan) (1843)
View of the Canton River, showing the Thirteen Factories in the background, 1850–1855
Government forces defeating Taiping armies
Yixin, Prince Gong
Empress Dowager Cixi (Oil painting by Hubert Vos c. 1905))
Britain, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan dividing China
Foreign armies in the Forbidden City 1900
Yuan Shikai
Qing China in 1911
Zaifeng, Prince Chun
A pitched battle between the imperial and revolutionary armies in 1911
A postage stamp from Yantai (Chefoo) in the Qing dynasty
A Qing dynasty mandarin
The emperor of China from The Universal Traveller
2000–cash Da-Qing Baochao banknote from 1859
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875
Qing China in 1832
The Qing dynasty in ca. 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange
Brush container symbol of elegant gentry culture
Chen Clan Ancestral Hall (陈家祠) built in 1894
Patriarchal family
Placard (right to left) in Manchu, Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian Yonghe Lamasery, Beijing
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
Xián Fēng Tōng Bǎo (咸豐通寶) 1850–1861 Qing dynasty copper (brass) cash coin
Puankhequa (1714–1788). Chinese merchant and member of a Cohong family.
Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759, by Shen Quan (1682–1760).
A Daoguang period Peking glass vase. Colored in "Imperial Yellow", due to its association with the Qing.
Jade book of the Qianlong period on display at the British Museum
Landscape by Wang Gai, 1694
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875

Prince Gong, a younger half-brother of the emperor, who had been left as his brother's proxy in the capital, was forced to sign the Convention of Beijing.

Palikao's bridge, on the evening of the battle of Palikao, by Émile Bayard

Second Opium War

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War, lasting from 1856 to 1860, which pitted the British Empire and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China.

War, lasting from 1856 to 1860, which pitted the British Empire and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China.

Palikao's bridge, on the evening of the battle of Palikao, by Émile Bayard
The Illustrated London News print of the clipper steamship Ly-ee-moon, built for the opium trade, c. 1859
The execution of the Paris Foreign Missions Society missionary Auguste Chapdelaine was the official cause of the French involvement in the Second Opium War.
The capture of Ye Mingchen after the fall of Canton
British troops taking a fort in 1860
Signing of the Treaty of Tientsin in 1858
Cousin-Montauban leading French forces during the 1860 campaign
Looting of the Old Summer Palace by Anglo-French forces in 1860
Ruins of the "Western style" complex in the Old Summer Palace, burnt down by Anglo-French forces
British taking Beijing
Second China War Medal, with Taku Forts 1860 bar.
French medal of the China Campaign ("Médaille de la Campagne de Chine"), 1861, in the Musée de la Légion d'Honneur. The Chinese characters inscribed on the ribbons read 'Beijing'.
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Médaille de la Campagne de Chine, as Awarded to a member of the 101st Infantry
Qing flag seized by Anglo-French forces. The flag reads "親兵第五隊右營": Bodyguard, fifth squadron, right battalion (unit types are approximate), Les Invalides.

During and after the Second Opium War, the Qing government was also forced to sign treaties with Russia, such the Treaty of Aigun and the Convention of Peking (Beijing).

Prince Gong

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Imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China.

Imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China.

Photo of a 39- or 40-year-old Prince Gong, taken by John Thompson in 1872 at the prince's residence.
Empress Xiaojingcheng and Prince Gong
Gulun Princess Rongshou (centre, seated)
Prince Gong Mansion

During the Second Opium War in 1860, Prince Gong negotiated with the British, French and Russians, signing the Convention of Beijing on behalf of the Qing Empire.

Treaty of Tientsin

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Collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin in June 1858.

Collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin in June 1858.

They ended the first phase of the Second Opium War, which had begun in 1856 and were ratified by the Emperor of China in the Convention of Peking in 1860, after the end of the war.

James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin

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British colonial administrator and diplomat.

British colonial administrator and diplomat.

Coats of arms of James Bruce
Statue of Elgin in front of the Parliament Building in Quebec
Entry of Lord Elgin into Peking, 1860
Lord Elgin's procession in Peking.
Presentation of HMY Emperor

Subsequently, he compelled the Qing dynasty to sign the Convention of Peking, adding Kowloon Peninsula to the British crown colony of Hong Kong.

Hong Kong

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City and special administrative region of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta in South China.

City and special administrative region of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta in South China.

Hong Kong in 1868, photograph by John Thomson
British Hong Kong flag from 1959 to 1997
Since 2012, the legislature has met in the Tamar Legislative Council Complex.
The Court of Final Appeal Building formerly housed the Supreme Court and the Legislative Council.
2019–2020 Hong Kong protests
Areas of urban development and vegetation are visible in this satellite image.
A residential building in Quarry Bay
2016 population pyramid
Wong Tai Sin Temple is dedicated to the Taoist deity Wong Tai Sin
Hong Kong is one of the world's busiest container ports
A proportional representation of Hong Kong exports, 2019
Former trading floor of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange
Entrance to the Cross-Harbour Tunnel in Hung Hom, Kowloon
MTR train on the Tung Chung line
Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city's film industry
The Hong Kong Sevens, considered the premier tournament of the World Rugby Sevens Series, is played each spring.
Old campus of St. Paul's College, the first school established in the colonial era
University of Hong Kong main building
TVB City, headquarters of Hong Kong's first over-the-air television station

The Qing were again defeated and forced to give up Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters Island in the Convention of Peking.

The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.

Beijing

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Capital of the People's Republic of China.

Capital of the People's Republic of China.

The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.
One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, built by the Yongle Emperor during the early Ming dynasty
Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties
Summer Palace is one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area.
Chongwenmen, a gate to the inner walled city, c. 1906
A large portrait of Chiang Kai-shek was displayed above Tiananmen after WWII.
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
A scene from the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games.
Landsat 7 Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown
1940s Nationalist Beijing with predominantly traditional architecture
The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city
Beijing average annual temperatures from 1970 to 2019 during summer (June, July, and August) and winter (December, January, and February). Weather station data from ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/. For comparison the Global Surface Temperature Anomaly rose by approximately one degree over the same time period.
Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.
Houhai Lake and Drum Tower at Shichahai, in the Xicheng District
Xidan is one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.
Beijing products treemap, 2020
The Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping arcade is a destination for locals and visitors.
The skyline of Beijing CBD
Zhongguancun is a technology hub in Haidian District
The Beijing Ancient Observatory
Qianmen Avenue, a traditional commercial street outside Qianmen Gate along the southern Central Axis
Inside the Forbidden City
Beijing Acrobatic Performance (10553642935)
A Temple of the Goddess in Gubeikou
Fire God Temple in Di'anmen
The tomb pagodas at Tanzhe Temple
Yonghe Temple of Tibetan Buddhism
Niujie Mosque
Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, built in 1703
The China Central Television Headquarters building in CBD
Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics
Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the Fragrant Hills Park
Beijing Workers' Stadium at night as viewed from Sanlitun
Beijing railway station, one of several rail stations in the city
Badaling Expressway overpass near the Great Wall
Typical Beijing traffic signage found at intersections
Traffic jam in the Beijing CBD
Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Two Line 1 trains on the Beijing Subway, which is among the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world
An articulated Beijing bus
Bicyclists during rush hour at the Chang'an Avenue, 2009
KJ-2000 and J-10s started the flypast formation on the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.

Under the Convention of Peking ending that war, Western powers for the first time secured the right to establish permanent diplomatic presences within the city.

Kowloon

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Urban area in Hong Kong comprising the Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon.

Urban area in Hong Kong comprising the Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon.

Kowloon c. 1868, depicting the Qing-era Kowloon Walled City and Lion Rock (in the background)
Map of Kowloon in 1915
Hong Kong's old airport, Kai Tak, was located in Kowloon Bay.
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University in Hung Hom
King George V School, Homantin
Western Harbour Crossing, one of the tunnels that link Kowloon with Hong Kong Island
Urban Council Centenary Garden fountain, Tsim Sha Tsui
Maze Garden, Kowloon Park, Tsim Sha Tsui
An Air France Boeing 747 passing above Kowloon, prior to landing at the old airport in 1998.
Star Ferry Pier, with the Hong Kong Cultural Centre and Tsim Sha Tsui Clock Tower in the background.
Kowloon Masjid and Islamic Centre
Night view of Kowloon from Hong Kong Island

The part of Kowloon south of Boundary Street, together with Stonecutters Island, was ceded by Qing China to the United Kingdom under the Convention of Peking of 1860.

Outer Manchuria, north of the contemporary Chinese border, shown in light red.

Outer Manchuria

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Currently part of Russia and had formerly belonged to a series of Chinese dynasties, including the Tang, Liao, Jin, Eastern Xia, Yuan, Northern Yuan, Ming, Later Jin, and Qing dynasties.

Currently part of Russia and had formerly belonged to a series of Chinese dynasties, including the Tang, Liao, Jin, Eastern Xia, Yuan, Northern Yuan, Ming, Later Jin, and Qing dynasties.

Outer Manchuria, north of the contemporary Chinese border, shown in light red.
One of the earliest European maps using the term "Manchuria" (Mandchouria) (John Tallis, 1851), showing inner and outer Manchuria. Previously, the term "Chinese Tartary" had been commonly applied in the West to Manchuria and Mongolia
The northeastern Qing Empire on a French map from 1734.
Map showing the original border (in pink) between Manchuria and Russia according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk 1689, and subsequent loss of territory to Russia in the treaties of Aigun 1858 (beige) and Peking 1860 (red)

The Russian Empire annexed this territory from Qing China by way of the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Treaty of Peking in 1860.

Stonecutters Island

Stonecutters Island

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Former island in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong.

Former island in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong.

Stonecutters Island
Location of Stonecutters Island within HKSAR
Stonecutters Island

The island was ceded by the Qing dynasty to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland along with Kowloon in 1860 through the Convention of Peking.