Convention of Peking

Treaty of PekingConvention of BeijingTreaty of BeijingBeijing TreatyBeijingPeking Convention1860 Treaty of Pekingand Kowloonanother cessationceded to Britain
The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, and Russian Empire in 1860.wikipedia
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Second Opium War

Second Anglo-Chinese WarArrow WarSecond China War
On 18 October 1860, at the culmination of the Second Opium War, the British and French troops entered the Forbidden City in Beijing.
The agreements of the Convention of Peking led to the ceding of Kowloon Peninsula as part of Hong Kong.

Qing dynasty

QingQing EmpireChina
The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, and Russian Empire in 1860.
Prince Gong, a younger half-brother of the emperor, who had been left as his brother's proxy in the capital, was forced to sign the Convention of Beijing.

Prince Gong

YixinPrince KungYixin (Prince Gong)
Following the decisive defeat of the Chinese, Prince Gong was compelled to sign two treaties on behalf of the Qing government with Lord Elgin and Baron Gros, who represented Britain and France respectively.
During the Second Opium War in 1860, Prince Gong negotiated with the British, French and Russians, signing the Convention of Beijing on behalf of the Qing Empire.

Nikolay Pavlovich Ignatyev

Nicholas Pavlovich IgnatievNikolay IgnatyevCount Ignatiev
Although Russia had not been a belligerent, Prince Gong also signed a treaty with Nikolay Ignatyev.
In dealing with China, he secured a large slice of Chinese territory by the multi-lateral Treaty of Peking in 1860.

James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin

Lord ElginThe Earl of ElginJames Bruce
Following the decisive defeat of the Chinese, Prince Gong was compelled to sign two treaties on behalf of the Qing government with Lord Elgin and Baron Gros, who represented Britain and France respectively.
Subsequently, he submitted the Qing dynasty to the unequal treaty of the Convention of Peking, adding Kowloon Peninsula to the British crown colony of Hong Kong.

Beijing

Beijing, ChinaPekingPeking, China
On 18 October 1860, at the culmination of the Second Opium War, the British and French troops entered the Forbidden City in Beijing.
Under the Convention of Peking ending that war, Western powers for the first time secured the right to establish permanent diplomatic presences within the city.

Unequal treaty

unequal treatiesunequaltreaties
In China, they are regarded as among the unequal treaties.

Treaty of Tientsin

Treaty of TianjinTreaties of TianjinTreaties of Tientsin
In the Convention, the Xianfeng Emperor ratified the Treaty of Tientsin (1858).
They were ratified by the Emperor of China in the Convention of Peking in 1860, after the end of the war.

Hong Kong

Hong Kong Special Administrative RegionHong Kong, ChinaHongkong
Article 6 of the Convention between China and the United Kingdom stipulated that China was to cede the part of Kowloon Peninsula south of present-day Boundary Street, Kowloon, and Hong Kong (including Stonecutters Island) in perpetuity to Britain.
The Qing were again defeated, and forced to give up Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutter's Island in the Convention of Peking.

Kowloon

Kowloon, Hong KongEast KowloonHung Hom, Kowloon
Article 6 of the Convention between China and the United Kingdom stipulated that China was to cede the part of Kowloon Peninsula south of present-day Boundary Street, Kowloon, and Hong Kong (including Stonecutters Island) in perpetuity to Britain.
The part of Kowloon south of Boundary Street, together with Stonecutters Island, was ceded by Qing China to the United Kingdom under the Convention of Peking of 1860.

Outer Manchuria

AmurlandRussian ManchuriaAmur
The treaty also ceded parts of Outer Manchuria to the Russian Empire.
Russia officially received this territory by way of the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Treaty of Peking in 1860.

Xianfeng Emperor

XianfengXianfeng periodYizhu
In the Convention, the Xianfeng Emperor ratified the Treaty of Tientsin (1858).
In 1858, according to the Treaty of Aigun, the territory between Stanovoy Mountains and Amur River was ceded to Russia, and in 1860, according to the Treaty of Beijing, the same thing happened also to the area east of Ussuri River.

Stonecutters Island

Stonecutter's IslandNgong Shuen ChauStonecutters
Article 6 of the Convention between China and the United Kingdom stipulated that China was to cede the part of Kowloon Peninsula south of present-day Boundary Street, Kowloon, and Hong Kong (including Stonecutters Island) in perpetuity to Britain.
The island was ceded by the Qing dynasty to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland along with Kowloon in 1860 through the Convention of Peking.

Primorsky Krai

PrimoryeMaritime ProvincePrimorsky
It granted Russia the right to the Ussuri krai, a part of the modern day Primorye, the territory that corresponded with the ancient Manchu province of East Tartary.
In 1858, Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky signed the Aigun Treaty with China, followed by the Beijing Treaty two years later.

Treaty of Nerchinsk

Nerchinsk Treatya border treatybelonged to Imperial China
See Treaty of Aigun (1858), Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) and Sino-Russian border conflicts.
In 1858 (Treaty of Aigun) Russia annexed the land north of the Amur and in 1860 (Treaty of Beijing) took the coast down to Vladivostok.

Kowloon Peninsula

KowloonKowloon Peninsular
The area known as Kowloon was originally leased in March 1860. The governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China (PRC) concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong in 1984, under which the sovereignty of the leased territories, together with Hong Kong Island, ceded under the Treaty of Nanjing (1842), and Kowloon Peninsula (south of Boundary Street), was transferred to the PRC on 1 July 1997.
Historically speaking, Kowloon Peninsula refers to the ceded territories of Kowloon in 1860 as part of the Convention of Peking, but geographically it covers the entire Kowloon south of the mountain ranges of Lion Rock, Kowloon Peak and other hills.

Sino-British Joint Declaration

Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong KongJoint DeclarationSino–British Joint Declaration
The governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China (PRC) concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong in 1984, under which the sovereignty of the leased territories, together with Hong Kong Island, ceded under the Treaty of Nanjing (1842), and Kowloon Peninsula (south of Boundary Street), was transferred to the PRC on 1 July 1997.
At the time of the lease signing, Hong Kong Island had already been ceded to the UK in perpetuity under the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842 after the First Opium War, and the southern part of the Kowloon Peninsula as well as the Stonecutters Island had also been ceded to the UK in perpetuity under the Convention of Beijing in 1860 after the Second Opium War.

Boundary Street

Article 6 of the Convention between China and the United Kingdom stipulated that China was to cede the part of Kowloon Peninsula south of present-day Boundary Street, Kowloon, and Hong Kong (including Stonecutters Island) in perpetuity to Britain.

Ussuri krai

Ussuri regionUssuriUssuriland
It granted Russia the right to the Ussuri krai, a part of the modern day Primorye, the territory that corresponded with the ancient Manchu province of East Tartary.
This decision was officially documented in the Aigun Treaty (1858) the Beijing Treaty (1860).

Sino-Russian border conflicts

Russian-Manchu border conflictsRussian–Manchu border conflictsSino–Russian border conflicts
See Treaty of Aigun (1858), Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) and Sino-Russian border conflicts.
In 1860, with the Convention of Beijing, Russia annexed the Primorye (i.e. the "Maritime Region") down to Vladivostok, an area that had not been in contention in the 17th century.

Treaty of Aigun

Aigun TreatyAigun
See Treaty of Aigun (1858), Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) and Sino-Russian border conflicts.

Treaty of Nanking

Treaty of NanjingNankingcession of Hong Kong
The governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China (PRC) concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong in 1984, under which the sovereignty of the leased territories, together with Hong Kong Island, ceded under the Treaty of Nanjing (1842), and Kowloon Peninsula (south of Boundary Street), was transferred to the PRC on 1 July 1997.
In 1984, the governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China (PRC) concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong, under which the sovereignty of the leased territories, together with Hong Kong Island and Kowloon (south of Boundary Street) ceded under the Convention of Peking (1860), was transferred to the PRC on 1 July 1997.

Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory

Second Convention of PekingBritish leased the New TerritoriesHong Kong's New Territories
The governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China (PRC) concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration in 1984, under which the sovereignty of the leased territories, together with Hong Kong Island and Kowloon (south of Boundary Street) ceded under the Treaty of Nanking (1842) and Convention of Peking (1860), was scheduled to be transferred to the PRC on 1 July 1997.