A report on Convention on Psychotropic Substances

MDMA (Ecstasy) pills. The Convention allows only government-approved medical and scientific uses of this and other substances.
Despite its well-known presence in the rave scene, ketamine remains uncontrolled internationally due to its importance as an anesthetic in veterinary medicine.
Article 32 makes an exception for peyote and other wild psychotropic plants, to protect use in religious rituals in case such plants themselves were in the future added to Schedule I.
Psilocybin mushrooms are not controlled by the Convention, but the drugs contained in them are.
LSD and equipment used in its manufacture are subject to seizure under Article 22.
Crystal meth has emerged as a commonly abused drug, from the American and European rave scenes to East Asia.

United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.

- Convention on Psychotropic Substances
MDMA (Ecstasy) pills. The Convention allows only government-approved medical and scientific uses of this and other substances.

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U.S. Food and Drug Administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New York

Controlled Substances Act

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Statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

Statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New York

2) The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 added provisions implementing the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Adriaen Brouwer, TheSmokers (1636)

Recreational drug use

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Altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

Altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

Adriaen Brouwer, TheSmokers (1636)
Edgar Degas, L'Absinthe (1876)
Bhang eaters from India c. 1790. Bhang is an edible preparation of cannabis native to the Indian subcontinent. It has been used in food and drink as early as 1000 BCE by Hindus in ancient India.
A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India
A rational harm assessment of drugs<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Blakemore|first1=Colin|last2=Saulsbury|first2=William|last3=King|first3=Leslie A.|last4=Nutt|first4=David|date=2007-03-24|title=Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse|url=https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)60464-4/abstract|journal=The Lancet|language=en|volume=369|issue=9566|pages=1047–1053|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4|issn=0140-6736|pmid=17382831|s2cid=5903121}}</ref>
This 1914 photo shows intoxicated men at a sobering-up room
alt=A chart showing dependence potential versus safety ratio.|An analysis of the dangers of drugs<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xpZhjBuDkuwC&pg=PA149|title=Drugs and Society: U.S. Public Policy|last=Fish|first=Jefferson M.|date=2006|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|isbn=9780742542457|language=en}}</ref>
Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in liters of pure alcohol
Caffeinated alcoholic beverages, such as Vodka Red Bull, are widespread and legal routes of administration for multiple drugs.
Insufflation of powdered drug
Injection of heroin
Cocaine is a commonly used stimulant
alt=A chart showing relative drug harm.|A chart showing relative drug harm.

Recreational drugs include alcohol, commonly found in beer, wine, and distilled spirits; cannabis and hashish (with legality of possession varying inter/intra-nationally); nicotine, commonly found in tobacco; caffeine, commonly found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, prescription drugs; the controlled substances listed as controlled drugs in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961) and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971) of the United Nations; and cocoa, commonly found in chocolate.

Governments of opium-producing Parties are required to "purchase and take physical possession of such crops as soon as possible" after harvest to prevent diversion into the illicit market.

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

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International treaty that controls activities (production, supply, trade, use) of specific narcotic drugs and establishes a system of regulations (licenses, measures for treatment, research, etc.) for their medical and scientific uses.

International treaty that controls activities (production, supply, trade, use) of specific narcotic drugs and establishes a system of regulations (licenses, measures for treatment, research, etc.) for their medical and scientific uses.

Governments of opium-producing Parties are required to "purchase and take physical possession of such crops as soon as possible" after harvest to prevent diversion into the illicit market.
The Single Convention was the first international treaty to prohibit cannabis.
Under Article 37, "Any drugs, substances and equipment used in or intended for the commission of any of the offenses . . . shall be liable to seizure and confiscation."
Different nations have drawn different conclusions as to whether the treaty requires criminalization of drug possession for personal use.
Articles 23 and 28 of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs require cannabis-producing nations to have a government agency that controls cultivation.

This treaty has since been supplemented by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which controls LSD, MDMA, and other psychoactive pharmaceuticals, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, which strengthens provisions against money laundering and other drug-related offenses.

Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

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Canada's federal drug control statute.

Canada's federal drug control statute.

The Act serves as the implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

Misuse of Drugs Act 1971

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Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

It represents action in line with treaty commitments under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.

Benzodiazepine

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Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.
Midazolam 1 & 5 mg/mL injections (Canada)
Temazepam (Normison) 10 mg tablets
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Benzodiazepines were ranked in this graph 7th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Diazepam 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsules, which are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.
Schematic diagram of the (α1)2(β2)2(γ2) GABAA receptor complex that depicts the five-protein subunits that form the receptor, the chloride (Cl−) ion channel pore at the center, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric binding site at the α1 and γ2 interface.
Left: The 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system. Right: 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one forms the skeleton of many of the most common benzodiazepine pharmaceuticals, such as diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl substituted).
A pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. White sticks represent the carbon atoms of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen atoms that are present in both structures. The red spheres labeled H1 and H2/A3 are, respectively, hydrogen bond donating and accepting sites in the receptor, while L1, L2, and L3 denote lipophilic binding sites.
The molecular structure of chlordiazepoxide, the first benzodiazepine. It was marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche from 1960 branded as Librium.
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

Internationally, benzodiazepines are categorized as Schedule IV controlled drugs, apart from flunitrazepam, which is a Schedule III drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Parties to the convention

United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances

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One of three major drug control treaties currently in force.

One of three major drug control treaties currently in force.

Parties to the convention
A cache of precursor chemicals near a South American cocaine processing lab.
The International Narcotics Control Board interprets the 1988 Convention as requiring Parties to criminalize simple drug possession.

It provides additional legal mechanisms for enforcing the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Methamphetamine

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Potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

Potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

Desoxyn (Methamphetamine Hydrochloride) 100 tablets.
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Methamphetamine was found to be the fourth most damaging to society.
A suspected case of meth mouth
This diagram depicts the neuroimmune mechanisms that mediate methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration in the human brain. The NF-κB-mediated neuroimmune response to methamphetamine use which results in the increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier arises through its binding at and activation of sigma receptors, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), the dysregulation of glutamate transporters (specifically, EAAT1 and EAAT2) and glucose metabolism, and excessive Ca2+ ion influx in glial cells and dopamine neurons.
This illustration depicts the normal operation of the dopaminergic terminal to the left, and the dopaminergic terminal in the presence of methamphetamine to the right. Methamphetamine reverses the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by activating TAAR1 (not shown). TAAR1 activation also causes some of the dopamine transporters to move into the presynaptic neuron and cease transport (not shown). At VMAT2 (labeled VMAT), methamphetamine causes dopamine efflux (release).
Shards of pure methamphetamine hydrochloride, also known as crystal meth
Pervitin, a methamphetamine brand used by German soldiers during World War II, was dispensed in these tablet containers.
U.S. drug overdose related fatalities in 2017 were 70,200, including 10,333 of those related to psychostimulants (including methamphetamine).

Internationally, the production, distribution, sale, and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or banned in many countries, due to its placement in schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty.

Tetrahydrocannabinol

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Principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis and one of at least 113 total cannabinoids identified on the plant.

Principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis and one of at least 113 total cannabinoids identified on the plant.

THC, along with its double bond isomers and their stereoisomers, is one of only three cannabinoids scheduled by the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances (the other two are dimethylheptylpyran and parahexyl).

Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets

Stimulant

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Overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

Overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Tablets containing MDMA
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Catha edulis

Also, the production, distribution, sale, and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or illegal in many other countries due to its placement in schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty.