Copland (operating system)

CoplandCopland OSGershwinPink CoplandCopland projectGershwin operating system
Copland is an operating system developed by Apple for Macintosh computers between 1994 and 1996 but never commercially released.wikipedia
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Apple Inc.

AppleApple ComputerApple Inc
Copland is an operating system developed by Apple for Macintosh computers between 1994 and 1996 but never commercially released.
After numerous failed attempts to modernize Mac OS, first with the Pink project from 1988 and later with Copland from 1994, Apple in 1997 purchased NeXT for its NeXTSTEP operating system and to bring Steve Jobs back.

MacOS

Mac OS XOS XMac
Mac OS X became Apple's next-generation operating system with its release in 2001. In 2001 this foundation was coupled to the Carbon library and Aqua user interface to form the modern Mac OS X product.
Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, but all of them were eventually abandoned.

Gil Amelio

Gilbert F. AmelioDr. Gil Amelio
In May 1996, Gil Amelio stated that Copland was the primary focus of the company, aiming for a late-year release.
To address these problems Amelio cut costs, reduced Apple's work force by one third, discontinued the Copland operating system project, and oversaw the development of Mac OS 8.

Ellen Hancock

Ellen Hancock was hired to get the project back on track, but quickly concluded it would never ship.
At Apple, she took over the Chief Technology Officer role in the midst of the floundering next-generation Copland operating system (OS) project.

Macintosh

Apple MacintoshMacMacs
Copland is an operating system developed by Apple for Macintosh computers between 1994 and 1996 but never commercially released.
When Steve Jobs returned to Apple in 1997 following the company's purchase of NeXT, he ordered that the OS that had been previewed as System 7.7 be branded Mac OS 8, a name Apple had previously wished to preserve for the never-to-appear next generation Copland OS.

Nukernel

Copland was designed to consist of the Mac OS on top of a microkernel named Nukernel, which would handle basic tasks such as application startup and memory management, leaving all other tasks to a series of semi-special programs known as servers.
Written from scratch at Apple and designed using concepts from Mach 3.0 with extensive additions for soft real-time scheduling to improve multimedia performance, it was intended to be used as the basis for the Copland operating system.

Taligent

PinkOpus (microkernel)split
Development of the ideas contained on the blue and pink cards was to proceed in parallel, and at first, the two projects were known simply as "blue" and "pink".
From 1994 to 1996, Apple floated the Copland operating system project intended to succeed System 7, but never had a modern OS sophisticated enough to run Taligent technology.

NeXT

NeXT ComputerNeXT Inc.NeXT Software
Among many choices they selected OpenStep and purchased NeXT in 1997 to obtain it.
The main purpose of the acquisition was to use NeXTSTEP as a foundation to replace the dated classic Mac OS, instead of BeOS or the in-development Copland.

OpenStep

OPENSTEP EnterpriseOPENSTEP/MachOPENSTEP for Mach
Among many choices they selected OpenStep and purchased NeXT in 1997 to obtain it. The project to port OpenStep to the Macintosh platform was named Rhapsody and was to be the core of Apple's cross-platform operating system strategy.
Rhapsody was OPENSTEP for Mach with a Copland appearance from Mac OS 8 and support for Java and Apple's own technologies, including ColorSync and QuickTime; it could be regarded as OPENSTEP 5.

PowerPC

PPCPower PCPowerPC 2.02
Another key feature of Copland is that it is completely PowerPC native.

Apple Worldwide Developers Conference

WWDCWorldwide Developers ConferenceWorld Wide Developers Conference
Parts of Copland, most notably an early version of the new file system, were demonstrated at Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference in May 1995.
In 1995, WWDC'95 focused almost fully on the Copland project, which by this time was able to be demonstrated to some degree.

Mac OS 8

Mac OS 8.1Mac OS 8.5Mac OS 8.6
In the interim period, while OpenStep was ported to the Mac, Apple released a much more legacy-oriented Mac OS 8 in 1997, followed by Mac OS 9 in 1999.
Released over a series of updates, Mac OS 8 represents an incremental integration of many of the technologies which had been developed from 1988 to 1996 for Apple's overly ambitious OS named Copland.

IBM System Object Model

System Object ModelSOMComparison with COM, GObject, SOM, Windows Runtime, XPCOM
Soon the project looked less like a new operating system and more like a huge collection of new technologies; QuickDraw GX, SOM, and OpenDoc became core components of the system, while completely unrelated technologies like a new file management dialog box (the "open dialog") and "themes" support appeared as well.
In 1997, when Steve Jobs returned to Apple and ended many development efforts including Copland and OpenDoc, SOM was replaced with Objective-C already being in use in OPENSTEP OS (to become Mac OS X later).

Appearance Manager

PlatinumKaleidoscopePlatinum (theme)
Soon the project looked less like a new operating system and more like a huge collection of new technologies; QuickDraw GX, SOM, and OpenDoc became core components of the system, while completely unrelated technologies like a new file management dialog box (the "open dialog") and "themes" support appeared as well.
It was originally developed for Apple's ill–fated Copland project, but with the cancellation of this project the system was moved into newer versions of the Mac OS.

QuickDraw GX

TrueType GX
Soon the project looked less like a new operating system and more like a huge collection of new technologies; QuickDraw GX, SOM, and OpenDoc became core components of the system, while completely unrelated technologies like a new file management dialog box (the "open dialog") and "themes" support appeared as well. During the early 1990s Apple released a series of major new packages to the system; among them are QuickDraw GX, Open Transport, OpenDoc, PowerTalk, and many others.
It might have seen widespread use as a part of the Copland project, but Copland never launched.

Power Macintosh

Power MacPowerMacPower Macs
This separation included operating system development, with the newly-conceived "Pink" being the platform for the new computer.

Classic Mac OS

Mac OSMacintoshMac OS Classic
After two aborted attempts at creating a successor to the Macintosh System Software called Taligent and Copland, and a four-year development effort spearheaded by Steve Jobs' return to Apple in 1997, Apple replaced Mac OS with a new operating system in 2001 named Mac OS X.

System 7

System 7.1Mac OS 7System 7.5
It was intended to be released as System 8, and later, "Mac OS 8", a modern successor to the ageing System 7.
Through this period, Apple had been attempting to release a completely new "modern" operating system, named Copland.

Macintosh operating systems

Mac OSMacMacintosh
Apple's effort to expand upon and develop a replacement for its classic Mac OS in the 1990s led to a few cancelled projects, code named Star Trek, Taligent, and Copland.

Code name

codenamecodenamedcryptonym
In the musical code-naming pattern where System 7.5 is code-named "Mozart", this intended successor is named "Copland" after composer Aaron Copland.

Star Trek project

Star TrekStarTrekDR DOS "StarTrek
Several new projects started during this time, notably the Star Trek project, a port of System 7 and its basic applications to Intel-compatible x86 machines, which reached internal demo status.

Rhapsody (operating system)

RhapsodyApple RhapsodyRhapsody OS
The project to port OpenStep to the Macintosh platform was named Rhapsody and was to be the core of Apple's cross-platform operating system strategy.
Another next-generation operating system, which was to be the successor to the never-completed Copland operating system, was code-named Gershwin after George Gershwin, composer of Rhapsody in Blue.

Carbon (API)

CarbonCarbon APICarbonLib
In 2001 this foundation was coupled to the Carbon library and Aqua user interface to form the modern Mac OS X product.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
Copland is an operating system developed by Apple for Macintosh computers between 1994 and 1996 but never commercially released.