Copper

A copper disc (99.95% pure) made by continuous casting; etched to reveal crystallites
Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color
Unoxidized copper wire (left) and oxidized copper wire (right)
The East Tower of the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, showing the contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper.
Native copper from the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, about 2.5 inches (6.4 cm) long
Chuquicamata, in Chile, is one of the world's largest open pit copper mines
World production trend
Copper prices 2003–2011 in US$ per tonne
Scheme of flash smelting process
Copper alloys are widely used in the production of coinage; seen here are two examples - post-1964 American dimes, which are composed of the alloy cupronickel and a pre-1968 Canadian dime, which is composed of an alloy of 80 percent silver and 20 percent copper.
A sample of copper(I) oxide.
Copper(II) gives a deep blue coloration in the presence of ammonia ligands. The one used here is tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate.
Pourbaix diagram for copper in uncomplexed media (anions other than OH- not considered). Ion concentration 0.001 m (mol/kg water). Temperature 25 °C.
Ball-and-stick model of the complex [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+, illustrating the octahedral coordination geometry common for copper(II).
A corroded copper ingot from Zakros, Crete, shaped in the form of an animal skin (oxhide) typical in that era.
Many tools during the Chalcolithic Era included copper, such as the blade of this replica of Ötzi's axe
Copper ore (chrysocolla) in Cambrian sandstone from Chalcolithic mines in the Timna Valley, southern Israel.
In alchemy the symbol for copper was also the symbol for the goddess and planet Venus.
Chalcolithic copper mine in Timna Valley, Negev Desert, Israel.
Copper Ornaments
Acid mine drainage affecting the stream running from the disused Parys Mountain copper mines
18th-century copper kettle from Norway made from Swedish copper
Chalcography of the city of Vyborg at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. The year 1709 carved on the printing plate.
Copper fittings for soldered plumbing joints
Copper electrical busbars distributing power to a large building
Copper roof on the Minneapolis City Hall, coated with patina
Old copper utensils in a Jerusalem restaurant
Large copper bowl. Dhankar Gompa.
Rich sources of copper include oysters, beef and lamb liver, Brazil nuts, blackstrap molasses, cocoa, and black pepper. Good sources include lobster, nuts and sunflower seeds, green olives, avocados, and wheat bran.
Photosynthesis functions by an elaborate electron transport chain within the thylakoid membrane. A central link in this chain is plastocyanin, a blue copper protein.

Chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29.

- Copper
A copper disc (99.95% pure) made by continuous casting; etched to reveal crystallites

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Houmuwu ding, the heaviest Chinese ritual bronze ever found; 1300–1046 BCE; National Museum of China (Beijing). This ding's name is based on the inscription in the bronze interior wall, which reads Hòumǔwù, meaning 'Queen Mother Wu'

Bronze

Houmuwu ding, the heaviest Chinese ritual bronze ever found; 1300–1046 BCE; National Museum of China (Beijing). This ding's name is based on the inscription in the bronze interior wall, which reads Hòumǔwù, meaning 'Queen Mother Wu'
A hoard of bronze socketed axes from the Bronze Age found in modern Germany. This was the top tool of the period, and also seems to have been used as a store of value.
Roman bronze nails with magical signs and inscriptions, 3rd-4th century AD.
Bronze bell with a visible crystallite structure.
Bronze weight with an inscribed imperial order, Qin dynasty
Industrial products of the Bunting Brass and Bronze Company, 1912
Chinese bells:Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng, Spring and Autumn period (476–221 BCE)
Singing bowls from the 16th to 18th centuries. Annealed bronze continues to be made in the Himalayas
The Dancing Girl, an Harappan artwork; 2400–1900 BCE; bronze; height: 10.8 cm; National Museum (New Delhi, India)
Ritual tripod cauldron (ding); circa 13th century BCE; bronze: height with handles: 25.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Ancient Egyptian statuette of a Kushite pharaoh; 713–664 BCE; bronze, precious-metal leaf; height: 7.6 cm, width: 3.2 cm, depth: 3.6 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Etruscan tripod base for a thymiaterion (incense burner); 475-450 BCE; bronze; height: 11 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Artemision Bronze; 460-450 BCE; bronze; height: 2.1 m; National Archaeological Museum (Athens)
Ancient Egyptian statuette of Isis and Horus; 305–30 BCE; solid cast of bronze; 4.8 × 10.3 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, US)
Ancient Greek statue of Eros sleeping; 3rd–2nd century BCE; bronze; 41.9 × 35.6 × 85.2 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Gupta sculpture of Buddha offering protection; late 6th–early 7th century; copper alloy; height: 47 cm, width: 15.6 cm, diameter: 14.3 cm; from India (probably Bihar); Metropolitan Museum of Art
French or South Netherlandish Medieval caldron; 13th or 14th century; bronze and wrought iron; height: 37.5 cm, diameter: 34.3 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Pair of French Rococo firedogs (chenets); circa 1750; gilt bronze; dimensions of the first: 52.7 x 48.3 x 26.7 cm, of the second: 45.1 x 49.1 x 24.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
French Neoclassical mantel clock (pendule de cheminée); 1757–1760; gilded and patinated bronze, oak veneered with ebony, white enamel with black numerals, and other materials; 48.3 × 69.9 × 27.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Pair of French Chinoiserie firedogs; 1760–1770; gilt bronze; height (each): 41.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Pair of Chinese vases with French Rococo mounts; the vases: early 18th century, the mounts: 1760–70; hard-paste porcelain with gilt-bronze mounts; 32.4 x 16.5 x 12.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
French Neoclassical mantel clock ("Pendule Uranie"); 1764–1770; case: patinated bronze and gilded bronze, Dial: white enamel, movement: brass and steel; 71.1 × 52.1 × 26.7 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Pair of mounted vases (vase à monter); 1765–70; soft-paste porcelain and French gilt bronze; 28.9 x 17.1 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Winter; by Jean-Antoine Houdon; 1787; bronze; 143.5 x 39.1 x 50.5 cm, height of the pedestal: 86.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminum, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals, such as phosphorus, or metalloids such as arsenic, or silicon.

Malachite from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Malachite

Malachite from the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The entrance to the Neolithic era malachite mine complex on the Great Orme, Wales
Malachite in the walls of Outokumpu's old mine.
The funerary mask of the Red Queen of Palenque is made from a mosaic of malachite.
Copper nugget example
View along c axis of the crystal structure of malachite
View along a axis of malachite crystal structure
View along b axis of malachite crystal structure
Unit cell of malachite
Coordination environment of copper 1
Coordination environment of copper 2
Coordination environment of carbonate
Coordination environment of hydroxide 1
Coordination environment of hydroxide 2
Slice through a double stalactite, from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Size 5.9 × 3.9 × 0.7 cm.
Malachite and azurite from Bisbee, Warren District, Mule Mts, Cochise County, Arizona
Malachite stalactites (to 9 cm height), from Kasompi Mine, Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Size: 21.6×16.0×11.9 cm.
Sample of malachite found at Kaluku Luku Mine, Lubumbashi, Shaba, Congo
Vase in malachite in the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg
Malachite, image taken under a stereoscopic microscope
British calendar, 1851, gilt bronze and malachite, height: 20.3 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Elephant carved from malachite. Length 11 cm.

Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.

From left to right: three alloys (beryllium copper, Inconel, steel) and three pure metals (titanium, aluminum, magnesium)

Alloy

Mixture of chemical elements of which at least one is a metal.

Mixture of chemical elements of which at least one is a metal.

From left to right: three alloys (beryllium copper, Inconel, steel) and three pure metals (titanium, aluminum, magnesium)
Liquid bronze, being poured into molds during casting
A brass lamp
A gate valve, made from Inconel
Allotropes of iron, (alpha iron and gamma iron) showing the differences in atomic arrangement
Photomicrographs of steel. Top photo: Annealed (slowly cooled) steel forms a heterogeneous, lamellar microstructure called pearlite, consisting of the phases cementite (light) and ferrite (dark). Bottom photo: Quenched (quickly cooled) steel forms a single phase called martensite, in which the carbon remains trapped within the crystals, creating internal stresses
Different atomic mechanisms of alloy formation, showing pure metal, substitutional, interstitial, and a combination of the two
A meteorite and a hatchet that was forged from meteoric iron
Bronze axe 1100 BC
A bronze doorknocker
Electrum, a natural alloy of silver and gold, was often used for making coins
Puddling in China, circa 1637. Opposite to most alloying processes, liquid pig-iron is poured from a blast furnace into a container and stirred to remove carbon, which diffuses into the air forming carbon dioxide, leaving behind a mild steel to wrought iron

Examples of alloys include red gold (gold and copper) white gold (gold and silver), sterling silver (silver and copper), steel or silicon steel (iron with non-metallic carbon or silicon respectively), solder, brass, pewter, duralumin, bronze, and amalgams.

Azurite from Burra Mine, South Australia

Azurite

Azurite from Burra Mine, South Australia
Chemical structure of azurite. Color code: red = O, green = Cu, gray = C, white = H)
Ground azurite for use as a pigment
The background of Lady with a Squirrel by Hans Holbein the Younger was painted with Azurite
The greenish tint of the Madonna's mantle in Raphael's Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints is due to azurite weathering to malachite
Azurite crystals from China
Azurite from Arizona, collected by Dr John Hunter in the 18th century, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow
Fresh, unweathered azurite crystals showing the deep blue of unaltered azurite. From Špania Dolina, Slovakia
Azurite with Malachite, Copper Queen mine, Bisbee, Arizona
Azurite from Touissit, Morocco
Azurite, Morenci, Arizona
Azurite in siltstone, Malbunka mine, Northern Territory, Australia
Azurite from Tsumeb, Namibia
Azurite, cross-section through merged stalactites, Bisbee, Arizona
Azurite crystal, from the minerals' collection at the Natural History Museum, London.
Spheroidal azurite specimens from Utah

Azurite is a soft, deep-blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Chemical element

A chemical element refers to all aspects of the species of atoms that have a certain number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

A chemical element refers to all aspects of the species of atoms that have a certain number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley

The history of the discovery and use of the elements began with primitive human societies that discovered native minerals like carbon, sulfur, copper and gold (though the concept of a chemical element was not yet understood).

Copper roof on the Minneapolis City Hall, coated with patina

Patina

Copper roof on the Minneapolis City Hall, coated with patina
The Dresden Frauenkirche. The church was destroyed during the bombing of Dresden in 1945 and then rebuilt from 1993 to 2005 with new material; the stones with the black patina are the parts that survived the firebombing from the original 18th-century church.
Pre-colonial copper coin formerly used in the Copper Belt (Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia). The external layer has been weathered by moisture and rain, leading to the oxidation of copper.
Copper weather vane with verdigris patina
The Statue of Liberty gets its famous green color from the natural patina formed on its copper surface.
Natural copper patina at the Nordic Embassies (Berlin)

Patina ( or ) is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper, brass, bronze and similar metals (tarnish produced by oxidation or other chemical processes), or certain stones, and wooden furniture (sheen produced by age, wear, and polishing), or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure.

Experimental values of thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity

Measure of its ability to conduct heat.

Measure of its ability to conduct heat.

Experimental values of thermal conductivity
Exhaust system components with ceramic coatings having a low thermal conductivity reduce heating of nearby sensitive components

For example, under standard conditions the thermal conductivity of copper is over 10,000 times that of air.

Turquoise

"Big Blue", a large turquoise specimen from the copper mine at Cananea, Sonora, Mexico
Massive Kingman blue turquoise in matrix with quartz from the Mineral Park mine, Arizona, US
Turquoise of Madan-e Olya of Nishapur
Persian turquoise from Iran
A selection of Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi) turquoise and orange argillite inlay pieces from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, US (dated c. undefined 1020–1140) show the typical colour range and mottling of American turquoise. Some likely came from Los Cerrillos.
A fine turquoise specimen from Los Cerrillos, New Mexico, US, at the Smithsonian Museum. Cerrillos turquoise was widely used by Native Americans prior to the Spanish conquest.
Bisbee turquoise commonly has a hard chocolate brown coloured matrix.
Untreated turquoise, Nevada, US. Rough nuggets from the McGinness Mine, Austin. Blue and green cabochons showing spiderweb, Bunker Hill Mine, Royston
Trade in turquoise crafts, such as this freeform pendant dating from 1000 to 1040, is believed to have brought the Ancestral Pueblo people of the Chaco Canyon great wealth.
Moche turquoise nose ornament. Larco Museum Collection, Lima, Peru
Backswords, inlaid with turquoise. Russia, 17th century
Turquoise mosaic mask of Xiuhtecuhtli, the Aztec god of fire. The Aztecs differentiated turquoise based on quality: xihuitl, a more mundane version used for decoration such as in mosaics, and teoxihuitl, a special version embued with qualities of Teotl and valued for its beauty.
The iconic gold burial mask of Tutankhamun, inlaid with turquoise, lapis lazuli, carnelian and coloured glass
Some natural blue to blue-green materials, such as this botryoidal chrysocolla with drusy quartz, are occasionally confused with or used to imitate turquoise.
An early turquoise mine in Madan, Khorasan Province, Iran
Slab of turquoise in matrix showing a large variety of different colouration

Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O.

Droplet of solidified molten tin

Tin

Chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50.

Chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50.

Droplet of solidified molten tin
Ceremonial giant bronze dirk of the Plougrescant-Ommerschans type, Plougrescant, France, 1500–1300 BC.
Ball-and-stick models of the structure of solid stannous chloride.
Sample of cassiterite, the main ore of tin
World production and price (US exchange) of tin.
World consumption of refined tin by end-use, 2006
A coil of lead-free solder wire
Tin plated metal from a can.
Pewter plate
Artisans working with tin sheets.
A 21st-century reproduction barn lantern made of punched tin.

The first tin alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of 1⁄8 tin and 7⁄8 copper, from as early as 3000 BC. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced.

A piece of resistive material with electrical contacts on both ends.

Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Fundamental property of a material that measures how strongly it resists electric current.

Fundamental property of a material that measures how strongly it resists electric current.

A piece of resistive material with electrical contacts on both ends.
Original data from the 1911 experiment by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes showing the resistance of a mercury wire as a function of temperature. The abrupt drop in resistance is the superconducting transition.
Lightning is an example of plasma present at Earth's surface. Typically, lightning discharges 30,000 amperes at up to 100 million volts, and emits light, radio waves, and X-rays. Plasma temperatures in lightning might approach 30,000 kelvin (29,727 °C) (53,540 °F), or five times hotter than the temperature at the sun surface, and electron densities may exceed 1024 m−3.

In normal (that is, non-superconducting) conductors, such as copper or silver, this decrease is limited by impurities and other defects.