Copper

CuCu 2+ cupriccopper(II)cuprouscopper metalCopper (Cu)copper metabolismcopper sheetcopper(I)
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.wikipedia
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Alloy

alloysmetal alloyalloying
Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.
For example, combining the metallic elements gold and copper produces red gold, gold and silver becomes white gold, and silver combined with copper produces sterling silver.

Cupronickel

cupro-nickelCopper-nickelcopper nickel
Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.
Cupronickel or copper-nickel (CuNi) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.

Sterling silver

sterlingsilver(0.925 fine) silver
Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.
Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper.

Bronze

bronzesbronzewaresilicon bronze
Thousands of years later, it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

Azurite

azurite (mineral)lapis armenius
Commonly encountered compounds are copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite, malachite, and turquoise, and have been used widely and historically as pigments. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, bornite, digenite, covellite, and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, and enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, and as copper(I) or copper(II) oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively.
Azurite is a soft, deep-blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.

Turquoise

turqoiseturquoise gemtourquoise
Commonly encountered compounds are copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite, malachite, and turquoise, and have been used widely and historically as pigments.
Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl 6 (PO 4 ) 4 (OH) 8 ·4H 2 O. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gemstone and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue.

Malachite

Bremen greenlaminar malachiteMalachit
Commonly encountered compounds are copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite, malachite, and turquoise, and have been used widely and historically as pigments. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, bornite, digenite, covellite, and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, and enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, and as copper(I) or copper(II) oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively.
Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2.

Constantan

Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.
Constantan is a copper–nickel alloy also known as Eureka, Advance, and Ferry.

Patina

patinatedpatinationpatinas
Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris (or patina).
Patina ( or ) is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper, brass, bronze and similar metals (tarnish produced by oxidation or other chemical processes), or certain stones, and wooden furniture (sheen produced by age, wear, and polishing), or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Among the more common of such native elements are copper, silver, gold, carbon (as coal, graphite, or diamonds), and sulfur.

Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
Thousands of years later, it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC.
The first tin alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of 1/8 tin and 7/8 copper, from as early as 3000 BC.

Gold

Aunative goldgold dust
Copper, silver, and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; these three metals have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility, and electrical and thermal conductivity.
It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium.

Silver

Agsilver orenative silver
Copper, silver, and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; these three metals have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility, and electrical and thermal conductivity.
Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

Copper (color)

coppercopperycopper-colored
A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color.
Copper is a reddish brown color that resembles the metal copper.

Hemocyanin

haemocyaninImmunocyaniniron-based red blood
In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates.
These metalloproteins contain two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O 2 ).

Cyprus

CypriotRepublic of CyprusCYP
In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later corrupted to сuprum (Latin), whence coper (Old English) and copper, first used around 1530.

Mineral (nutrient)

mineralsdietary mineralsdietary mineral
Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase.
The trace elements that have a specific biochemical function in the human body are sulfur, iron, chlorine, cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, iodine, and selenium.

Verdigris

aerugoaerūgōcopper resinate
Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris (or patina).
Verdigris is the common name for a green pigment obtained through the application of acetic acid to copper plates or the natural patina formed when copper, brass or bronze is weathered and exposed to air or seawater over time.

Group 11 element

group 1111coinage metals
Copper, silver, and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; these three metals have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility, and electrical and thermal conductivity.
Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).

Tarnish

tarnishingturn green
Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air.
Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, silver, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

Chalcopyrite

copper pyritescopper pyritepyrites
In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, bornite, digenite, covellite, and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, and enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, and as copper(I) or copper(II) oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively.
Chalcopyrite is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system.

Electrical resistivity and conductivity

electrical conductivityresistivityconductivity
It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity.
In ordinary conductors, such as copper or silver, this decrease is limited by impurities and other defects.

Sulfosalt minerals

sulfosaltsulfosalt mineralsulfosalts
In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, bornite, digenite, covellite, and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, and enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, and as copper(I) or copper(II) oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively.
Sulfosalt minerals are those complex sulfide minerals with the general formula: A m B n S p ; where A represents a metal such as copper, lead, silver, iron, and rarely mercury, zinc, vanadium; B usually represents semi-metal such as arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and rarely germanium, or metals like tin and rarely vanadium; and S is sulfur or rarely selenium or/and tellurium.

Bornite

In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, bornite, digenite, covellite, and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, and enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, and as copper(I) or copper(II) oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively.
Bornite, also known as peacock ore, is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu 5 FeS 4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).