Coral reef

coral reefsbarrier reefreefreefscoralformation of coral reefsbarrier reefsplanar reefreef-associatedreef-building
A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals.wikipedia
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Blast fishing

dynamite fishingdynamiteExplosives
They are under threat from excess nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), rising temperatures, oceanic acidification, overfishing (e.g., from blast fishing, cyanide fishing, spearfishing on scuba), sunscreen use, and harmful land-use practices, including runoff and seeps (e.g., from injection wells and cesspools).
This often illegal practice can be extremely destructive to the surrounding ecosystem, as the explosion often destroys the underlying habitat (such as coral reefs) that supports the fish.

Atoll

coral atollatollsDarwin Point
Coral reefs are found in the deep sea away from continental shelves, around oceanic islands and atolls. In The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, Charles Darwin set out his theory of the formation of atoll reefs, an idea he conceived during the voyage of the Beagle.
An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely.

The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs

coralsformation of such coral reefsthe formation of coral reefs
In The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, Charles Darwin set out his theory of the formation of atoll reefs, an idea he conceived during the voyage of the Beagle.
The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, Being the first part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle, under the command of Capt. Fitzroy, R.N. during the years 1832 to 1836, was published in 1842 as Charles Darwin's first monograph, and set out his theory of the formation of coral reefs and atolls.

Fringing reef

reef flatfringingfringing coral reef
A fringing reef forms around an extinct volcanic island as the island and ocean floor subsides.
A fringing reef is one of the four main types of coral reef recognized by most coral reef scientists.

Great Barrier Reef

Great Barrier Reef World Heritage AreaThe Great Barrier ReefBarrier Reef
The approximately 20,000-year-old Great Barrier Reef offers an example of how coral reefs formed on continental shelves.
The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2300 km over an area of approximately 344400 km2.

Cyanide fishing

cyanidesquirting cyanideused to poach fish
They are under threat from excess nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), rising temperatures, oceanic acidification, overfishing (e.g., from blast fishing, cyanide fishing, spearfishing on scuba), sunscreen use, and harmful land-use practices, including runoff and seeps (e.g., from injection wells and cesspools).
The practice hurts not only the target population, but also many other marine organisms, including coral and coral reefs.

Cay

caysCayeskeys
The corals could then overgrow the hills, forming cays and reefs.
A cay ( or ), also spelled caye or key, is a small, low-elevation, sandy island on the surface of a coral reef.

Cnidaria

cnidariancnidarianscnidarian venoms
Coral belongs to the class Anthozoa in the animal phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones and jellyfish. They occupy less than 0.1% of the world's ocean area, about half the area of France, yet they provide a home for at least 25% of all marine species, including fish, mollusks, worms, crustaceans, echinoderms, sponges, tunicates and other cnidarians.
Many scleractinian corals—which form the structural foundation for coral reefs—possess polyps that are filled with symbiotic photo-synthetic zooxanthellae.

Belize Barrier Reef

Barrier ReefBelize Barrier Reef Reserve SystemBelizean Barrier Reef
Other major examples are the Belize Barrier Reef and the New Caledonian Barrier Reef.
The Belize Barrier Reef is a series of coral reefs straddling the coast of Belize, roughly 300 m offshore in the north and 40 km in the south within the country limits.

Anthozoa

anthozoancoralanthozoans
Coral belongs to the class Anthozoa in the animal phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones and jellyfish.
Hexacorallia includes coral reef builders: the stony corals (Scleractinia), sea anemones (Actiniaria), and zoanthids (Zoantharia).

Coralline algae

corallinecoralline algaCorallinales
However, shell fragments and the remains of coralline algae such as the green-segmented genus Halimeda can add to the reef's ability to withstand damage from storms and other threats.
Coralline algae play an important role in the ecology of coral reefs.

Fish

fishesfinfishichthyofauna
They occupy less than 0.1% of the world's ocean area, about half the area of France, yet they provide a home for at least 25% of all marine species, including fish, mollusks, worms, crustaceans, echinoderms, sponges, tunicates and other cnidarians.
Coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific constitute the center of diversity for marine fishes, whereas continental freshwater fishes are most diverse in large river basins of tropical rainforests, especially the Amazon, Congo, and Mekong basins.

Gambier Islands

GambierMangareva IslandsGambier archipelago
Barrier reefs are also found on the coasts of Providencia, Mayotte, the Gambier Islands, on the southeast coast of Kalimantan, on parts of the coast of Sulawesi, southeastern New Guinea and the south coast of the Louisiade Archipelago.
The Gambier Islands include the Mangareva Islands (the Gambier Islands proper), which have an enclosing coral reef which is broken by only three passages to the open sea.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles Robert Darwin
In The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, Charles Darwin set out his theory of the formation of atoll reefs, an idea he conceived during the voyage of the Beagle.
He theorised that as the land rose, oceanic islands sank, and coral reefs round them grew to form atolls.

Mascarene Islands

MascareneMascarenesMascarene Island
Some platform reefs of the northern Mascarenes are several thousand kilometres from the mainland.
Limestone banks found on the plateau are the remnants of coral reefs, indicating that the plateau was a succession of islands.

Cocos Island

CocosIsla del CocoCocos Island moist forests
Atolls are found in the Indian Ocean, for example, in the Maldives, the Chagos Islands, the Seychelles and around Cocos Island.
Smaller and colorful species are also abundant among one of the most extensive coral reefs in the southeastern Pacific.

New Guinea

PapuaIrianPapua New Guinean
Barrier reefs are also found on the coasts of Providencia, Mayotte, the Gambier Islands, on the southeast coast of Kalimantan, on parts of the coast of Sulawesi, southeastern New Guinea and the south coast of the Louisiade Archipelago.
New Guinea contains many of the world's ecosystem types: glacial, alpine tundra, savanna, montane and lowland rainforest, mangroves, wetlands, lake and river ecosystems, seagrasses, and some of the richest coral reefs on the planet.

Scuba diving

scubascuba diverscuba divers
They are under threat from excess nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), rising temperatures, oceanic acidification, overfishing (e.g., from blast fishing, cyanide fishing, spearfishing on scuba), sunscreen use, and harmful land-use practices, including runoff and seeps (e.g., from injection wells and cesspools).
Therefore, divers who are neutrally buoyant at one dive destination (e.g. a fresh water lake) will predictably be positively or negatively buoyant when using the same equipment at destinations with different water densities (e.g. a tropical coral reef).

High island

volcanic islandvolcanic islandsvolcanic
A fringing reef forms around an extinct volcanic island as the island and ocean floor subsides.
The term can be used to distinguish such islands from low islands, which are formed from sedimentation or the uplifting of coral reefs (which have often formed on sunken volcanos).

Florida Reef

coral reef tractFlorida reef systemFlorida Reef Tract
The Florida Reef (also known as the Great Florida Reef, Florida reefs, Florida Reef Tract and Florida Keys Reef Tract) is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States.

Persian Gulf

GulfGulf regionPersian Gulf region
Tropical corals do not grow at depths of over 50 m. The optimum temperature for most coral reefs is 26 –, and few reefs exist in waters below 18 C. However, reefs in the Persian Gulf have adapted to temperatures of 13 C in winter and 38 C in summer.
The Persian Gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive reefs (mostly rocky, but also coral), and abundant pearl oysters, but its ecology has been damaged by industrialization and oil spills.

Mayotte

Mayotte IslandMahoréMahoran
Barrier reefs are also found on the coasts of Providencia, Mayotte, the Gambier Islands, on the southeast coast of Kalimantan, on parts of the coast of Sulawesi, southeastern New Guinea and the south coast of the Louisiade Archipelago.
Mayotte is surrounded by a typical tropical coral reef.

Micronesia

MicronesiansMicronesianFSM
Atolls are numerous in the South Pacific, where they usually occur in mid-ocean, for example, in the Caroline Islands, the Cook Islands, French Polynesia, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia.
Coral atolls begin as coral reefs that grow on the slopes of a central volcano.

Caribbean

the CaribbeanWest IndiesWest Indian
Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs account for 7.6%.
The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations.

Lord Howe Island

Lord HoweLord Howe Island GroupLord Howe Island Board
Along the west coast is a sandy semi-enclosed sheltered coral reef lagoon.