Coral sand

Coral sand from a beach on Aruba

Collection of sand of particles originating in tropical and sub-tropical marine environments from bioerosion of limestone skeletal material of marine organisms.

- Coral sand

21 related topics



Granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.

Sand dunes in the Idehan Ubari, Libya
Depiction of sands: glass, dune, quartz volcanic, biogenic coral, pink coral volcanic, garnet, olivine. Samples are from the Gobi Desert, Estonia, Hawaii and the mainland United States. (1x1 cm each)
Heavy minerals (dark) in a quartz beach sand (Chennai, India)
Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park, Utah. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color.
Sand from Pismo Beach, California. Components are primarily quartz, chert, igneous rock, and shell fragments.
Close up of black volcanic sand from Perissa, Santorini, Greece
Scanning electron micrograph showing grains of sand
Pitted sand grains from the Western Desert, Egypt. Pitting is a consequence of wind transportation.
Sand grains of yellow building sand. Microscope Lumam P-8. EPI lighting. The photo of each grain of sand is the result of multifocal stacking.

The bright white sands found in tropical and subtropical coastal settings are eroded limestone and may contain coral and shell fragments in addition to other organic or organically derived fragmental material, suggesting that sand formation depends on living organisms, too.


Bioerosion describes the breakdown of hard ocean substrates – and less often terrestrial substrates – by living organisms.

Sponge borings (Entobia) and encrusters on a modern bivalve shell, North Carolina.
Trypanites borings in an Upper Ordovician hardground, southeastern Indiana; see Wilson and Palmer (2001).
Petroxestes borings in an Upper Ordovician hardground, southern Ohio; see Wilson and Palmer (2006).
Gastrochaenolites borings in a Middle Jurassic hardground, southern Utah; see Wilson and Palmer (1994).
Numerous borings in a Cretaceous cobble, Faringdon, England; see Wilson (1986).
Cross-section of a Jurassic rockground; borings include Gastrochaenolites (some with boring bivalves in place) and Trypanites; Mendip Hills, England; scale bar = 1 cm.
Teredolites borings in a modern wharf piling; the work of bivalves known as "shipworms".
Ordovician hardground cross-section with Trypanites borings filled with dolomite; southern Ohio.
Gastrochaenolites boring in a recrystallized scleractinian coral, Matmor Formation (Middle Jurassic) of southern Israel.
Osprioneides borings in a Silurian stromatoporoid from Saaremaa, Estonia; see Vinn, Wilson and Mõtus (2014).
Gnathichnus pentax echinoid trace fossil on an oyster from the Cenomanian of Hamakhtesh Hagadol, southern Israel.
Geopetal structure in bivalve boring in coral; bivalve shell visible; Matmor Formation (Middle Jurassic), southern Israel.
Borings in an Upper Ordovician bryozoan, Bellevue Formation, northern Kentucky; polished cross-section.

Bioerosion of coral reefs generates the fine and white coral sand characteristic of tropical islands.

Hibiscus tiliaceus

Species of flowering tree in the mallow family, Malvaceae, that is native to the Old World tropics.

Sea hibiscus from Hawaii

Sea Hibiscus is well adapted to grow in coastal environment in that it tolerates salt and waterlogging and can grow in quartz sand, coral sand, marl, limestone, and crushed basalt.

Pandanus tectorius

Species of Pandanus that is native to Malesia, eastern Australia, and the Pacific Islands.

Male flower
Growth habit
Aerial roots
Spiny aerial roots and leaflets
Fruit showing phalanges
Ripe fruit
Close up of keys, or stamen

Thatch Screwpine is well adapted to grow in the many soil types present on coasts, including quartz sand, coral sand, and peat, as well as in limestone and basalt.


Artificial island created by government decision in 1991 as a municipal landfill situated to the west of Malé, and is located between Kaafu Atoll's Giraavaru and Gulhifalhu of the Maldives.

Thilafushi-2, area with heaviest industrialization
Mountains of waste piled up on the "garbage island" of Thilafushi.

Waste received from Malé was deposited into the midst of the pit, which was topped off with a layer of construction debris and then uniformly levelled with white sand.


The Sama-Bajau refers to several Austronesian ethnic groups of Maritime Southeast Asia.

West Coast Bajau women of Sabah in their traditional dress
A Sama lepa houseboat from the Philippines (c. 1905)
A Sama-Bajau flotilla in Lahad Datu, Sabah, Malaysia
Regions inhabited by peoples usually known as "Sea Nomads"
Sama-Bajau children in Basilan, Philippines
A Sama woman making a traditional mat in Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia
Sama-Bajau woman anchoring a family boat (banglo) in Malaysia
Sama-Bajau houses in Cawa Cawa, Zamboanga City, Philippines, 1923
Residents of a Bajau kampung in Afdeeling Ternate, Groote Oost, Dutch East Indies (present-day North Maluku, Indonesia) c. 1925
A Bajau chieftain in traditional attire from Kampung Menkabong, Tuaran, British North Borneo, c. 1948
Percentage population of Bajau by state constituencies in Sabah, Malaysia, according to 2020 census
A typical Sama-Bajau settlement in the Philippines
A Sama-Bajau village in Omadal Island, Sabah, Malaysia
Bokori, a Sama-Bajau village in southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia
Sama-Bajau woman and children from Omadal Island, Sabah, Malaysia
Garay warship of the Banguingui pirates
The Regatta Lepa festival in Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia. Lepa refers to the houseboat in the dialect of east coast Bajau. In this festival, Bajau people decorate their boats with colourful flags.
The traditional house of the west coast Bajau in Kota Belud, Sabah, Malaysia
An-Nur Mosque, the main mosque in the Bajau village of Tuaran, Sabah, Malaysia
Sunduk grave markers showing the Sama okil carving traditions. It originated from the pre-Islamic ancestor worship of the Sama-Bajau and originally included human and animal figures which are largely missing in modern sunduk due to Islamic influence.
The Jama Mapun people's indigenous cosmology is extremely vast. Examples of figures in their cosmology are Niyu-niyu (coconut palm), Lumba-lumba (dolphin), and Anak Datu (two sons of a datu spearing another figure, Bunta - a blowfish).
A Sama-Bajau vinta in Zamboanga City, 1923
Sama-Bajau woman from Maiga Island, Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia, with traditional sun protection called burak
A Sama-Bajau child in Tagbilaran City, Bohol, Philippines, diving for coins thrown by tourists into the water
A Bajau girl clad in her traditional dress
Detail of the elaborate okil carvings on the stern of a vinta from Tawi-Tawi, c. 1920
The West Coast Bajau horsemen in their hometown of Kota Belud, with a background of Mount Kinabalu behind
The rehabilitation of a traditional Sama-Bajau house in the Heritage Village of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
The 1982 to 1988 Sabah coat of arms depicts a kingfisher, adopted primarily to symbolise the large Sama-Bajau population in Sabah

Sama-Bajau fishermen are often associated with illegal and destructive practices, like blast fishing, cyanide fishing, coral mining, and cutting down mangrove trees.

Namyit Island

Third-largest island on Tizard Bank in the northwest of the Spratly Islands in South China Sea.

Namyit Island has no source of fresh water, and its coral sand is not suitable for plants in general.

Spanish Virgin Islands

The Spanish Virgin Islands (Islas Vírgenes Españolas), formerly called the Passage Islands (Spanish: Islas del Pasaje) and also known as the Puerto Rican Virgin Islands (Islas Vírgenes de Puerto Rico, Islas Vírgenes Puertorriqueñas), West Virgin Islands (Spanish: Islas Vírgenes Occidental, Islas Vírgenes Occidentales) primarily consisting of the islands of Culebra and Vieques, are part of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and are located east of the main island of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean.

South coast of Pineiro Island

The coast is marked by cliffs, coral sand beaches, and mangroves.

List of birds of Tuvalu

Island country in Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean.

The Pacific reef-heron (dark morph pictured) is one of three native land birds that breeds on Tuvalu.
Pacific black duck
Pacific imperial-pigeon
Buff-banded rail
Bar-tailed godwit in non-breeding plumage
Bridled tern
Red-tailed tropicbird
Male great frigatebird
Brown morph of the red-footed booby

Its climate is hot and humid, with annual rainfall varying from 2500–3500 mm. The soil is very weakly developed, consisting mostly of coral sand and calcium carbonate-rich regosols.

Jones Beach (New South Wales)

Beach on the south-eastern coast of Australia, facing the Tasman Sea.

St Oswalds Bay, Dorset, England. Wild sand and shingle beaches are shaped and maintained naturally by wave actions.

Jones Beach is a relatively straight east-facing white sand beach that is about 900 m long, located between Minnamurra Point, a 30 m high headland, and basalt columns of the southern Cathedral Rocks.