Cori cycle

lactate metabolismprocessedThe Cori cycle (lactic acid cycle)
The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is cyclically metabolized back to lactate.wikipedia
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Gerty Cori

Gerty Theresa CoriGerti CoriGerty T. Cori
The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is cyclically metabolized back to lactate.
With her husband Carl and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, Gerty Cori received the Nobel Prize in 1947 for the discovery of the mechanism by which glycogen—a derivative of glucose—is broken down in muscle tissue into lactic acid and then resynthesized in the body and stored as a source of energy (known as the Cori cycle).

Carl Ferdinand Cori

Carl CoriCarlCarl F. Cori
The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is cyclically metabolized back to lactate.
While at the Institute the Coris’ research focused on carbohydrate metabolism, leading to the definition of the Cori cycle in 1929.

Lactic acid

lactatelacticblood lactate
The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is cyclically metabolized back to lactate. Lactic acid fermentation converts pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase.

Glycolysis

glycolyticglycolytic pathwayEmbden–Meyerhof pathway
The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is cyclically metabolized back to lactate. G-6-P is readily fed into glycolysis, (or can go into the pentose phosphate pathway if G-6-P concentration is high) a process that provides ATP to the muscle cells as an energy source. (Refer to the main articles on glycolysis and fermentation for the details.)
The liver in mammals gets rid of this excess lactate by transforming it back into pyruvate under aerobic conditions; see Cori cycle.

Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
The breakdown of glycogen, a process known as glycogenolysis, releases glucose in the form of glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P).
Muscular lactate enters the liver through the bloodstream in mammals, where gluconeogenesis occurs (Cori cycle).

Lactate dehydrogenase

LDHlactic acid dehydrogenaselactic dehydrogenase
Lactic acid fermentation converts pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase.
It converts pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to lactate when oxygen is absent or in short supply, and it performs the reverse reaction during the Cori cycle in the liver.

Glycogenesis

glycogen synthesisGlycogen biosynthesisglycogenetic
If muscle activity has stopped, the glucose is used to replenish the supplies of glycogen through glycogenesis.
This process is activated during rest periods following the Cori cycle, in the liver, and also activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels.

Gluconeogenesis

gluconeogenicgluconeogenic pathwayglucogenic
In the liver, gluconeogenesis occurs.
Lactate is transported back to the liver where it is converted into pyruvate by the Cori cycle using the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase.

Cahill cycle

Alanine cycleglucose-alanine cycleglucose–alanine cycle
It is quite similar to the Cori cycle in the cycling of nutrients between skeletal muscle and the liver.

Citric acid cycle

Krebs cycleTCA cycletricarboxylic acid cycle
When the supply of oxygen is sufficient, this energy comes from feeding pyruvate, one product of glycolysis, into the Krebs cycle.
In the classical Cori cycle, muscles produce lactate which is then taken up by the liver for gluconeogenesis.

Adenosine triphosphate

ATPadenosine triphosphate (ATP)adenosine 5'-triphosphate
Muscular activity requires ATP, which is provided by the breakdown of glycogen in the skeletal muscles. G-6-P is readily fed into glycolysis, (or can go into the pentose phosphate pathway if G-6-P concentration is high) a process that provides ATP to the muscle cells as an energy source.

Glycogen

glycogen depositsglycogen (n)glycogen deposits
Muscular activity requires ATP, which is provided by the breakdown of glycogen in the skeletal muscles.

Skeletal muscle

skeletal musclesskeletalmuscle
Muscular activity requires ATP, which is provided by the breakdown of glycogen in the skeletal muscles.

Glycogenolysis

breakdown of glycogenbreakdownglycogen degradation
The breakdown of glycogen, a process known as glycogenolysis, releases glucose in the form of glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P).

Glucose 1-phosphate

glucose-1-phosphatebeta-D-glucose 1-phosphateCori ester
The breakdown of glycogen, a process known as glycogenolysis, releases glucose in the form of glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P).

Glucose 6-phosphate

glucose-6-phosphateG6PD-glucose 6-phosphate
G-6-P is readily fed into glycolysis, (or can go into the pentose phosphate pathway if G-6-P concentration is high) a process that provides ATP to the muscle cells as an energy source.

Myocyte

muscle fibermuscle cellmuscle cells
G-6-P is readily fed into glycolysis, (or can go into the pentose phosphate pathway if G-6-P concentration is high) a process that provides ATP to the muscle cells as an energy source.

Allotropes of oxygen

dioxygenmolecular oxygenatomic oxygen
When the supply of oxygen is sufficient, this energy comes from feeding pyruvate, one product of glycolysis, into the Krebs cycle.

Pyruvic acid

pyruvatepyruvate metabolismpyruvate metabolism, inborn errors
When the supply of oxygen is sufficient, this energy comes from feeding pyruvate, one product of glycolysis, into the Krebs cycle.

Anaerobic respiration

anaerobicanaerobic metabolismanaerobically
When oxygen supply is insufficient, typically during intense muscular activity, energy must be released through anaerobic metabolism.

Lactic acid fermentation

lactic fermentationlactic acidlacto-fermented
Lactic acid fermentation converts pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NAD + NADHNAD
Most importantly, fermentation regenerates NAD +, maintaining the NAD + concentration so that additional glycolysis reactions can occur.

Fermentation

fermentedfermentfermenting
(Refer to the main articles on glycolysis and fermentation for the details.)

Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
Instead of accumulating inside the muscle cells, lactate produced by anaerobic fermentation is taken up by the liver.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
The glucose is then supplied to the muscles through the bloodstream; it is ready to be fed into further glycolysis reactions.