Corn ethanol

cornconversion of crops to ethanolcorn based ethanolcorn-based ethanolEthanolrenewable biofuel
Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn biomass and is the main source of ethanol fuel in the United States.wikipedia
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Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn biomass and is the main source of ethanol fuel in the United States.
However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other, such as corn starch and corn syrup.

Ethanol fuel in the United States

ethanolethanol subsidiesUnited States
Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn biomass and is the main source of ethanol fuel in the United States.

Ethanol fermentation

fermentationalcoholic fermentationfermented
Corn ethanol is produced by ethanol fermentation and distillation.
In temperate regions, corn or sugar beets are used.

Corn kernel

corn kernelskernelkernels
In the dry milling process, the entire corn kernel is ground into flour, or "mash," which is then slurried by adding water.
The use of corn and other grains as a renewable biofuel may have environmental and cost benefits, compared to other energy sources, and may create additional forms of revenue for farmers and other economic industries.

Wet-milling

wet millingwet milled
There are two main types of corn ethanol production: dry milling and wet milling, which differ in the initial grain treatment method and co-products.
For example, wet-milling plants can separate a 56-pound bushel of corn into more than 31 pounds of cornstarch (which in turn can be converted into corn syrups or corn ethanol), 15 pounds of corn gluten meal for use in animal feed, and nearly 2 pounds of corn oil.

Corn starch

cornstarchcornflourcorn flour
The corn starch and remaining water can be fermented into ethanol through a similar process as dry milling, dried and sold as modified corn starch, or made into corn syrup.
Corn ethanol

Indirect land use change impacts of biofuels

Indirect Land Use Changeadvanced biofueldirect indirect land use change emissions
Additional controversy relates to the large amount of arable land required for crops and its impact on grain supply and direct and indirect land use change effects.

Cellulosic ethanol

cellulose ethanolcellulosic biofuelcellulosic technologies
The use of cellulosic biomass to produce ethanol is considered second generation biofuel that are considered by some to be a solution to the food versus fuel debate, and has the potential to cut life cycle greenhouse gas emissions by up to 86 percent relative to gasoline.
However, most of its production is with the use of corn ethanol.

Ethanol fuel

ethanolbioethanolalcohol
Ethanol fuel
Figures compiled in a 2007 report by National Geographic Magazine point to modest results for corn ethanol produced in the US: one unit of fossil-fuel energy is required to create 1.3 energy units from the resulting ethanol.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn biomass and is the main source of ethanol fuel in the United States. The corn starch and remaining water can be fermented into ethanol through a similar process as dry milling, dried and sold as modified corn starch, or made into corn syrup. The use of cellulosic biomass to produce ethanol is considered second generation biofuel that are considered by some to be a solution to the food versus fuel debate, and has the potential to cut life cycle greenhouse gas emissions by up to 86 percent relative to gasoline. Corn ethanol results in lower greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline and is fully biodegradable, but environmental concerns ; approximately 40.5% of the U.S. corn croplands are used for ethanol production.

Biomass

biomass power plantbio-massbiomass-fired
Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn biomass and is the main source of ethanol fuel in the United States.

Distillation

distillerydistilleddistilleries
Corn ethanol is produced by ethanol fermentation and distillation.

Greenhouse gas

greenhouse gasescarbon emissionsgreenhouse gas emissions
The use of cellulosic biomass to produce ethanol is considered second generation biofuel that are considered by some to be a solution to the food versus fuel debate, and has the potential to cut life cycle greenhouse gas emissions by up to 86 percent relative to gasoline. Corn ethanol results in lower greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline and is fully biodegradable, but environmental concerns ; approximately 40.5% of the U.S. corn croplands are used for ethanol production.

Farm

farmsfarmsteadscropland
Corn ethanol results in lower greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline and is fully biodegradable, but environmental concerns ; approximately 40.5% of the U.S. corn croplands are used for ethanol production.

Oxygenate

oxygenationfuel oxygenate additiveoxygenated fuel
Corn ethanol is mainly added as an oxygenate to gasoline to produce a low-level blend used in motor vehicles.

Common ethanol fuel mixtures

gasoholE10E100
Corn ethanol is mainly added as an oxygenate to gasoline to produce a low-level blend used in motor vehicles.

E85

E85 EthanolE85 fuel E85 Ethanol
To a lesser extent, it is used as fuel for E85 flex-fuel vehicles.

Flexible-fuel vehicle

flex-fuelflexible-fuelflex fuel
To a lesser extent, it is used as fuel for E85 flex-fuel vehicles.

Dry milling and fractionation of grain

dry milling
In the dry milling process, the entire corn kernel is ground into flour, or "mash," which is then slurried by adding water. There are two main types of corn ethanol production: dry milling and wet milling, which differ in the initial grain treatment method and co-products. The corn starch and remaining water can be fermented into ethanol through a similar process as dry milling, dried and sold as modified corn starch, or made into corn syrup.

Flour

farinaceouswhite flourmeal
In the dry milling process, the entire corn kernel is ground into flour, or "mash," which is then slurried by adding water.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
Enzymes are added to the mash to hydrolyze the starch into simple sugars.

Monosaccharide

monosaccharidessimple sugarsimple sugars
Enzymes are added to the mash to hydrolyze the starch into simple sugars.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
Ammonia is added to control the pH and as a nutrient for the yeast, which is added later.

PH

pH levelneutralpH value
Ammonia is added to control the pH and as a nutrient for the yeast, which is added later.

Yeast

yeastsbrewer's yeastbudding yeast
Ammonia is added to control the pH and as a nutrient for the yeast, which is added later.