Cornish language

CornishOld CornishMiddle CornishCornish-languageKernewekLate CornishRevived Late CornishCornwallMedieval Cornishancient Cornish tongue
Cornish (Standard Written Form: Kernewek or Kernowek ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family.wikipedia
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Standard Written Form

variant graph
Cornish (Standard Written Form: Kernewek or Kernowek ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family.
The Standard Written Form or SWF (Furv Skrifys Savonek) of the Cornish language is an orthography standard that is designed to "provide public bodies and the educational system with a universally acceptable, inclusive, and neutral orthography".

Cornish language revival

Cornish revivalrevivalA revival
A revival began in the early 20th century.
The Cornish language revival (dasserghyans Kernowek) is an ongoing process to revive the use of the Cornish language of Cornwall, United Kingdom.

Breton language

BretonOld BretonMiddle Breton
Along with Welsh and Breton, Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Great Britain before the English language came to dominate. Brittonic also includes Welsh, Breton and the Cumbric language; the last is extinct.
Breton is most closely related to Cornish, both being Southwestern Brittonic languages.

Common Brittonic

BrittonicBrythonicBritish
Along with Welsh and Breton, Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Great Britain before the English language came to dominate.
By the sixth century AD, this language of the Celtic Britons was starting to split into the various Neo-Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cumbric, Cornish, Breton and probably the Pictish language.

Cornish literature

CornishCornish verseLiterature
Since the revival of the language, some Cornish textbooks and works of literature have been published, and an increasing number of people are studying the language.
Cornish literature refers to written works in the Cornish language.

Cornwall

CornishCornwall, EnglandCounty of Cornwall
It is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in Cornwall in the late 18th century.
The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, and its very mild climate.

Music of Cornwall

Cornish musicCornwallCornish
Recent developments include Cornish music, independent films and children's books.
In medieval Cornwall there are records of performances of ‘Miracle Plays’ in the Cornish language, with considerable musical involvement.

Brittonic languages

BrythonicBrittonicBrythonic languages
Cornish (Standard Written Form: Kernewek or Kernowek ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family. Cornish is one of the Brittonic languages, which constitute a branch of the Insular Celtic section of the Celtic language family.
During the next few centuries the language began to split into several dialects, eventually evolving into Welsh, Cornish, Breton and Cumbric.

List of revived languages

revived languagerevival
It is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in Cornwall in the late 18th century.
Cornish was once spoken in the Duchy of Cornwall until it became extinct as a spoken language in the late 18th century.

European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

European Charter for Regional and Minority LanguagesEuropean Charter of regional languagesECRML
Cornish is currently recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
Countries can treat languages differently under the charter, for example, in the United Kingdom, the Welsh language is ratified under the general Part II principles as well as the more specific Part III commitments, while the Cornish language is ratified only under Part II.

Celtic languages

CelticCeltic languageQ-Celtic
Cornish (Standard Written Form: Kernewek or Kernowek ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family. Cornish is one of the Brittonic languages, which constitute a branch of the Insular Celtic section of the Celtic language family.
The Cornish and Manx languages went extinct in modern times.

Insular Celtic languages

Insular CelticInsular Celtic languageCeltic
Cornish is one of the Brittonic languages, which constitute a branch of the Insular Celtic section of the Celtic language family.

Cumbric

Cumbric language(Cumbric)Brittonic (Cumbric)
Brittonic also includes Welsh, Breton and the Cumbric language; the last is extinct.
What is generally agreed upon by linguists is that Cumbric was a Western Brittonic language closely related to Welsh and, more distantly, to Cornish and Breton.

Ordinalia

Origo Mundi
Most important is the Ordinalia, a cycle of three mystery plays, Origo Mundi, Passio Christi and Resurrexio Domini.
The Ordinalia are three medieval mystery plays dating to the late fourteenth century, written primarily in Middle Cornish, with stage directions in Latin.

Great Britain

BritishBritainGBR
Along with Welsh and Breton, Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Great Britain before the English language came to dominate.
At the time of the Germanic invasion of Southern Britain, many Britons emigrated to the area now known as Brittany, where Breton, a Celtic language closely related to Welsh and Cornish and descended from the language of the emigrants, is still spoken.

Cornish rebellion of 1497

Battle of BlackheathBattle of Deptford BridgeCornish Rebellion
The Prayer Book Rebellion, which may also have been influenced by the retaliation of the English after the failed Cornish Rebellion of 1497, broke out, and was ruthlessly suppressed: over 4,000 people who protested against the imposition of an English prayer book were massacred by Edward VI's army.
The Cornish rebellion of 1497 (Cornish: Rebellyans Kernow) was a popular uprising by the people of Cornwall.

William Scawen

In 1680, William Scawen wrote an essay describing 16 reasons for the decline of Cornish, among them the lack of a distinctive Cornish alphabet, the loss of contact between Cornwall and Brittany, the cessation of the miracle plays, loss of records in the Civil War, lack of a Cornish Bible, and immigration to Cornwall.
William Scawen (1600–1689) was one of the pioneers in the revival of the Cornish language.

Penwith

Penwith peninsulaWest PenwithPenwith District Council
By the middle of the 17th century, the language had retreated to Penwith and Kerrier, and transmission of the language to new generations had almost entirely ceased.
The area is named after one of the ancient administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning 'headland' and wydh meaning 'at the end'.

Last speaker of the Cornish language

1777speaker of the Cornish languagelast monoglot Cornish-speaker
The last native speakers of Cornish are thought to have died by the end of the 18th century.
Identifying the last native speaker of the Cornish language was a subject of academic interest in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Robert Morton Nance

Morton NanceR. Morton NanceR. M. Nance
In 1929 Robert Morton Nance published his Unified Cornish system, based on the Middle Cornish literature while extending the attested vocabulary with forms based on Celtic roots also found in Breton and Welsh, publishing a dictionary in 1938.
Robert Morton Nance (1873–1959) was a leading authority on the Cornish language, nautical archaeologist, and joint founder of the Old Cornwall Society.

Henry Jenner

Kitty LeeHis son
In 1904, the Celtic language scholar and Cornish cultural activist Henry Jenner published A Handbook of the Cornish Language.
Henry Jenner (8 August 1848 – 8 May 1934) was a British scholar of the Celtic languages, a Cornish cultural activist, and the chief originator of the Cornish language revival.

John Davey (Cornish speaker)

John DaveyJohn Davey Jnr.John Davey or Davy
However, the last verse was the Cranken Rhyme, written in the late 19th century by John Davey of Boswednack.
John Davey or Davy (1812–1891) was a Cornish farmer who was one of the last people with some traditional knowledge of the Cornish language.

Nicholas Williams

Williams, Nicholas Jonathan Anselm
It was subsequently adopted by the Cornish Language Board as well as by many Cornish speakers, but came under fierce criticism for a variety of reasons by Jon Mills and Nicholas Williams, as well as those who found its orthography too different from traditional Cornish spelling conventions.
Nicholas Jonathan Anselm Williams (born October 1942 in Walthamstow, Essex, now London, UK), writing as Nicholas Williams or sometimes N.J.A. Williams, is a leading expert and poet on the Cornish language.

Unified Cornish

Unified Cornish RevisedUnified form
In 1929 Robert Morton Nance published his Unified Cornish system, based on the Middle Cornish literature while extending the attested vocabulary with forms based on Celtic roots also found in Breton and Welsh, publishing a dictionary in 1938.
Unified Cornish (UC) (Kernewek Uny[e]s, KU) is a variety of the Cornish language of the Cornish revival.

Southwestern Brittonic languages

Southwestern BrittonicSouthwesternSouthwestern Brythonic
Cornish (Standard Written Form: Kernewek or Kernowek ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family.
During the period of their earliest attestation, the languages appear to be indistinguishable, but they gradually evolved into the Cornish and Breton languages.