Coronary artery bypass surgery

heart bypassbypass surgeryheart bypass surgerycoronary artery bypass graftcoronary artery bypass graftingcoronary artery bypasscoronary bypass surgeryquadruple bypass surgerycoronary bypasstriple bypass
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.wikipedia
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Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
CABG does not prevent myocardial infarction (heart attack).
In people with blockages of multiple coronary arteries and diabetes, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be recommended rather than angioplasty.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
The obstruction being bypassed is typically due to arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, or both.
A number of procedures may also be carried out such as percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, or carotid endarterectomy.

Hybrid coronary revascularization

coronary revascularizationhybrid bypass
A 2018 meta-analysis with over 4000 patient cases found Hybrid Coronary Revascularization (LIMA-to-LAD anastomosis combined with percutaneous stents at other atherosclerotic sites) to have significant advantages compared with conventional CABG.
Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) or hybrid coronary bypass is a relatively new type of heart surgery that provides an alternative to traditional coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI or PTCA) by combining the two into one operation.

External support

External support may be placed on the vein prior to grafting into the coronary circulation of the patient.
In cardiac surgery and vascular surgery, external support (or external stent) is a type of scaffold made of metal or plastic material that is inserted over the outside of the vein graft in order to decrease the intermediate and late vein graft failure after bypass surgery (e.g. CABG).

Off-pump coronary artery bypass

beating heartoff-pump bypass surgery
Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) is a technique of performing bypass surgery without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (the heart-lung machine).
Off-pump coronary artery bypass or "beating heart" surgery is a form of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (heart-lung machine) as a treatment for coronary heart disease.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
A normal coronary artery transports blood to and from the heart muscle itself, not through the main circulatory system.

Great saphenous vein

saphenous veinsaphenous veinsgreater saphenous vein
In the other, a great saphenous vein is removed from a leg; one end is attached to the aorta or one of its major branches, and the other end is attached to the obstructed artery immediately after the obstruction to restore blood flow.
The vein is often removed by cardiac surgeons and used for autotransplantation in coronary artery bypass operations, when arterial grafts are not available or many grafts are required, such as in a triple bypass or quadruple bypass.

Vein graft failure

chronic graft occlusionGraft failurevein graft disease
In medicine, vein graft failure (VGF) is a condition in which vein grafts, which are used as alternative conduits in bypass surgeries (e.g. CABG), get occluded.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be used in severe disease.

Percutaneous coronary intervention

coronary angioplastyPCIpercutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PCI is an alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, often referred to as "bypass surgery"), which bypasses stenotic arteries by grafting vessels from elsewhere in the body.

Reperfusion therapy

reperfusioneperfusionreperfused
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.
From 1995 to 2004, the percentage of people with cardiogenic shock treated with primary PCI rose from 27.4% to 54.4%, while the increase in coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) was only from 2.1% to 3.2%.

Angina

angina pectorischest painstable angina
CABG is performed to relieve angina unsatisfactorily controlled by maximum tolerated anti-ischemic medication, prevent or relieve left ventricular dysfunction, and/or reduce the risk of death.
In patients in whom such noninvasive testing is diagnostic, a coronary angiogram is typically performed to identify the nature of the coronary lesion, and whether this would be a candidate for angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), treatment only with medication, or other treatments.

Internal thoracic artery

internal mammary arteryinternal mammaryinternal mammary branch
In one, the left internal thoracic artery, LITA (also called left internal mammary artery, LIMA) is diverted to the left anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery.
The internal thoracic artery is the cardiac surgeon's blood vessel of choice for coronary artery bypass grafting.

Postperfusion syndrome

pumphead syndrome
A study by Newman et al. at Duke University Medical Center published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) showed an increased incidence of cognitive decline after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), both immediately (53 percent at discharge from hospital) and over time (36 percent six weeks, 24 percent at six months, and 42 percent at five years).

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
CABG is performed to relieve angina unsatisfactorily controlled by maximum tolerated anti-ischemic medication, prevent or relieve left ventricular dysfunction, and/or reduce the risk of death.
As a result, coronary catheterization may be used to identify possibilities for revascularisation through percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery.

Cardiac muscle

myocardiumheart musclemyocardial
A normal coronary artery transports blood to and from the heart muscle itself, not through the main circulatory system.
If the blockage is not relieved promptly by medication, percutaneous coronary intervention, or surgery, then a heart muscle region may become permanently scarred and damaged.

Arteriosclerosis

cerebral arteriosclerosishardening of the arteriesarteriosclerotic
The obstruction being bypassed is typically due to arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, or both.

Left anterior descending artery

anterior interventricularleft anterior descendingAnterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery
In one, the left internal thoracic artery, LITA (also called left internal mammary artery, LIMA) is diverted to the left anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery.
Even a small amount of plaque in this area can (for a variety of poorly understood reasons) rupture and cause death; bypassing chronic blockages or trying to open them up with angioplasty does not prevent heart attack but it can restore blood flow in case of a sudden blockage or heart attack and if performed within a rapid time period can minimize the damage done.

Revascularization

revascularisationre-vascularisationrevascularized
For coronary artery disease (ischemic heart disease), coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (coronary balloon angioplasty) are the two primary means of revascularization.

Endoscopic vessel harvesting

endoscopic vein harvesting
The right internal thoracic (mammary) artery (RITA or RIMA) and the radial artery from the forearm are frequently used as well; in the U.S., these vessels are usually harvested either endoscopically, using a technique known as endoscopic vessel harvesting (EVH), or with the open-bridging technique, employing two or three small incisions.
Endoscopic vessel harvesting (EVH) is a surgical technique that may be used in conjunction with coronary artery bypass surgery (commonly called a "bypass").

Vasoplegic syndrome

VPS occurs more frequently after on pump CABG surgery versus off pump CABG surgery.

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery

MIDCABMinimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Further refinements to OPCAB have resulted in minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery (MIDCAB), a technique of performing bypass surgery through a 5 to 10 cm incision.
Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass (MIDCAB) is a surgical treatment for coronary heart disease that is a less invasive method of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG).

Pleural effusion

pleuraleffusionpleural effusions
Pleural effusions may also occur through medical or surgical interventions, including the use of medications (pleural fluid is usually eosinophilic), coronary artery bypass surgery, abdominal surgery, endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy, radiation therapy, liver or lung transplantation, and intra- or extravascular insertion of central lines.

Median sternotomy

sternotomyScar in the middle of the sternum
This procedure provides access to the heart and lungs for surgical procedures such as heart transplant, corrective surgery for congenital heart defects, or coronary artery bypass surgery.