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Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), involves the reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle due to build up of plaque in the arteries of the heart.
When severe, it can result in coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems, depending on which arteries are affected.

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseaseheart condition
It the most common of the cardiovascular diseases.
CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack).

Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
Types include stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
The most common cause of cardiac arrest is coronary artery disease.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, depression, and excessive alcohol.
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
Other complications include heart failure or an abnormal heartbeat.
Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.

Chest pain

chestchest painschest tightness
A common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Chest pain that occurs regularly with activity, after eating, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with narrowings of the arteries of the heart.
In adults the most common causes of chest pain include: gastrointestinal (42%), coronary artery disease (31%), musculoskeletal (28%), pericarditis (4%) and pulmonary embolism (2%).

Heartburn

acid indigestionagitacardialgia
Occasionally it may feel like heartburn.
In about 0.6% of cases it is a symptom of ischemic heart disease.

Cardiac stress test

stress testexercise stress testcardiac stress tests
A number of tests may help with diagnoses including: electrocardiogram, cardiac stress testing, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and coronary angiogram, among others.
This test can be used to diagnose coronary artery disease (also known as ischemic heart disease) and assess patient prognosis after a myocardial infarction (heart attack).

Percutaneous coronary intervention

coronary angioplastyPCIpercutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
Procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be used in severe disease.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.

List of causes of death by rate

causes of deathleading cause of deathcause of death
It makes up 15.6% of all deaths, making it the most common cause of death globally.

Diabetes mellitus

diabetesdiabeticdiabetics
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, depression, and excessive alcohol.
Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to coronary artery disease.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Chest pain that occurs regularly with activity, after eating, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with narrowings of the arteries of the heart.
Of these more than three quarters are a result of coronary artery disease and stroke.

Coronary CT angiography

coronary computed tomographic angiography
A number of tests may help with diagnoses including: electrocardiogram, cardiac stress testing, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and coronary angiogram, among others.
The subject receives an intravenous injection of radiocontrast and then the heart is scanned using a high speed CT scanner, allowing physicians to assess the extent of occlusion in the coronary arteries, usually in order to diagnose coronary artery disease.

Type A and Type B personality theory

Type AType A personalitytype-A
Having a type A behavior pattern, a group of personality characteristics including time urgency, competitiveness, hostility, and impatience, is linked to an increased risk of coronary disease.
The two cardiologists who developed this theory came to believe that Type A personalities had a greater chance of developing coronary heart disease.

Lipoprotein(a)

lipoprotein (a)LPAlipoprotein A
High levels of lipoprotein(a), a compound formed when LDL cholesterol combines with a protein known as apolipoprotein(a).
Genetic studies and numerous epidemiologic studies have identified Lp(a) as a risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke.

Aspirin

acetylsalicylic acidASAbaby aspirin
Additional medications such as antiplatelets (including aspirin), beta blockers, or nitroglycerin may be recommended.
For the prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) in someone with documented or suspected coronary artery disease, much lower doses are taken once daily.

Hypercholesterolemia

high cholesterolhigh blood cholesterolhypercholesterolaemia
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, depression, and excessive alcohol.
All the lipoproteins carry cholesterol, but elevated levels of the lipoproteins other than HDL (termed non-HDL cholesterol), particularly LDL-cholesterol, are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

Ventricular fibrillation

fibrillationventricular fibrillation VFa heart defect
Chronic high-grade narrowing of the coronary arteries can induce transient ischemia which leads to the induction of a ventricular arrhythmia, which may terminate into a dangerous heart rhythm known as ventricular fibrillation, which often leads to death.
Ventricular fibrillation can occur due to coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, Brugada syndrome, long QT syndrome, electric shock, or intracranial hemorrhage.

Arteriosclerosis

cerebral arteriosclerosishardening of the arteriesarteriosclerotic
Calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) deposits in the muscular layer of the blood vessels appear to play a significant role in stiffening the arteries and inducing the early phase of coronary arteriosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke, with multiple genetic and environmental contributions.

Angina

angina pectorischest painstable angina
Types include stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Chest pain that occurs regularly with activity, after eating, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with narrowings of the arteries of the heart. Cardiac syndrome X is chest pain (angina pectoris) and chest discomfort in people who do not show signs of blockages in the larger coronary arteries of their hearts when an angiogram (coronary angiogram) is being performed.
The main mechanism of coronary artery obstruction is an atherosclerosis as part of coronary artery disease.

Ischemia

ischemicischaemiaischaemic
Chronic high-grade narrowing of the coronary arteries can induce transient ischemia which leads to the induction of a ventricular arrhythmia, which may terminate into a dangerous heart rhythm known as ventricular fibrillation, which often leads to death. Limitation of blood flow to the heart causes ischemia (cell starvation secondary to a lack of oxygen) of the heart's muscle cells.
Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of death in most Western countries and a major cause of hospital admissions.

Agent Orange

defoliantAgent Orange § U.S. veterans class action lawsuit against manufacturersdefoliants
Exposure to the herbicide Agent Orange may increase risk.
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention notes that in particular, there are higher rates of acute/chronic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, throat cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, Ischemic heart disease, soft tissue sarcoma and liver cancer.

Cardiac muscle

myocardiumheart musclemyocardial
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), involves the reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle due to build up of plaque in the arteries of the heart. Limitation of blood flow to the heart causes ischemia (cell starvation secondary to a lack of oxygen) of the heart's muscle cells.
The most common condition affecting cardiac muscle is ischaemic heart disease, in which the blood supply to the heart is reduced.

Stenosis

stricturestricturesnarrowing
Chest pain that occurs regularly with activity, after eating, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with narrowings of the arteries of the heart. Chronic high-grade narrowing of the coronary arteries can induce transient ischemia which leads to the induction of a ventricular arrhythmia, which may terminate into a dangerous heart rhythm known as ventricular fibrillation, which often leads to death.
Angina (coronary artery stenosis)

Microvascular angina

syndrome Xcardiac syndrome X
Cardiac syndrome X is chest pain (angina pectoris) and chest discomfort in people who do not show signs of blockages in the larger coronary arteries of their hearts when an angiogram (coronary angiogram) is being performed.
Abnormal cardiac stress test: ST changes are typically similar to those of coronary artery disease, and the opposite of those of Prinzmetal's angina. Myocardial perfusion imaging can be abnormal in 30% of patients.