Corporate law

Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble, by Edward Matthew Ward, Tate Gallery
"Jack and the Giant Joint-Stock", a cartoon in Town Talk (1858) satirizing the 'monster' joint-stock economy that came into being after the Joint Stock Companies Act 1844.
A bond issued by the Dutch East India Company, dating from 7 November 1623, for the amount of 2,400 florins
Adolf Berle in The Modern Corporation and Private Property argued that the separation of control of companies from the investors who were meant to own them endangered the American economy and led to a mal-distribution of wealth.

Body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.

- Corporate law

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Board of directors

Executive committee that jointly supervises the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit or a nonprofit organization such as a business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.

Center for Interfaith Relations Board of Directors meeting

The powers, duties, and responsibilities of a board of directors are determined by government regulations (including the jurisdiction's corporate law) and the organization's own constitution and by-laws.

Corporate governance

Defined, described or delineated in diverse ways, depending on the writer's purpose.

Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.

Writers focussed on a disciplinary interest or context (such as accounting, finance, law, or management) often adopt narrow definitions that appear purpose-specific.

Legal person

Any person or 'thing' that can do the things a human person is usually able to do in law – such as enter into contracts, sue and be sued, own property, and so on.

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

It is pertinent to the philosophy of law, as it is essential to laws affecting a corporation (corporations law).

Limited liability

Legal status where a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a corporation, company or partnership.

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As a general principle of corporate law, in the United States, a parent entity and the sole owner are not liable for the acts of its subsidiaries.

Joint-stock company

Business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.

The transfer letter from 1288 through which Bishop Peter of Västerås reacquires an eighth of Tiskasjöberg, Kopparberget. The original can be found at Riksarkivet (National Archive) in Stockholm.
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC). Founded in 1602, the VOC was a pioneering early model of joint-stock companies at the dawn of modern capitalism. The VOC is often considered by many to be the world's first permanently organized limited-liability joint-stock company, with a permanent capital base.      In other words, the VOC was the first recorded joint-stock company to get a fixed capital stock.
One of the oldest known stock certificates, issued by the VOC chamber of Enkhuizen, dated 9 Sep 1606.
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (or Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser in Dutch), the world's first formal stock exchange. The VOC's 17th-century business model played a crucial role in the evolution of modern-day joint-stock corporations, especially publicly traded companies.
The flag of the East India Company, which is speculated to have influenced the design of the Grand Union Flag.

In modern-day corporate law, the existence of a joint-stock company is often synonymous with incorporation (possession of legal personality separate from shareholders) and limited liability (shareholders are liable for the company's debts only to the value of the money they have invested in the company).

Private company limited by guarantee

Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble, by Edward Matthew Ward, Tate Gallery

In British, Irish and Australian company law, a company limited by guarantee (CLG) is a type of corporation used primarily (but not exclusively) for non-profit organisations that require legal personality.

Corporation

McDonald's Corporation is one of the most recognizable corporations in the world.
1/8 share of the Stora Kopparberg mine, dated June 16, 1288.
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company (VOC)
A bond issued by the Dutch East India Company (VOC), dating from 1623, for the amount of 2,400 florins
Chart of the South Sea Company's stock prices. The rapid inflation of the stock value in the 1710s led to the Bubble Act 1720, which restricted the establishment of companies without a royal charter.
"Jack and the Giant Joint-Stock", a cartoon in Town Talk (1858) satirizing the 'monster' joint-stock economy that came into being after the Joint Stock Companies Act 1844.
Lindley LJ was the leading expert on partnerships and company law in the Salomon v. Salomon & Co. case. The landmark case confirmed the distinct corporate identity of the company.

A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law "born out of statute"; a legal person in legal context) and recognized as such in law for certain purposes.

Delaware General Corporation Law

Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, written in Polish

The Delaware General Corporation Law (Title 8, Chapter 1 of the Delaware Code) is the statute governing corporate law in the U.S. state of Delaware.

List of legal entity types by country

Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble, by Edward Matthew Ward, Tate Gallery

A business entity is an entity that is formed and administered as per corporate law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable.

Unlimited company

Hybrid company incorporated with or without a share capital (and similar to its limited company counterpart) but where the legal liability of the members or shareholders is not limited: that is, its members or shareholders have a joint and several non-limited obligation to meet any insufficiency in the assets of the company to enable settlement of any outstanding financial liability in the event of the company's formal liquidation.

A modern corporate office building in Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

Unlimited companies are found in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Nigeria, India, Australia, New Zealand and other jurisdictions where the company law is derived from English law.