Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisoneSolu-CortefA-HydrocortActicortAeroseb-HCAla-CortAla-ScalpAlphaderm
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.wikipedia
683 Related Articles

Hydrocortisone

cortisolCortisol (hydrocortisone)hydrocortone
When used as a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone.
Hydrocortisone is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
It is produced in many animals, mainly by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

Glucocorticoid

glucocorticoidssteroidssteroid
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cortisol (or hydrocortisone) is the most important human glucocorticoid.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
It is released with a diurnal cycle and its release is increased in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. Changed patterns of serum cortisol levels have been observed in connection with abnormal ACTH levels, mood disorders (such as major depressive disorder), anxiety disorders, psychological stress, and physiological stressors such as hypoglycemia, illness, fever, trauma, surgery, fear, pain, physical exertion, or temperature extremes.
The second major physiological stress, the HPA axis regulates the release of cortisol, which influences many bodily functions such as metabolic, psychological and immunological functions.

Adrenal cortex

adrenocorticalcortexadrenocortical cells
It is produced in many animals, mainly by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.

Zona fasciculata

It is produced in many animals, mainly by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
The zona fasciculata chiefly produces glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol in humans), which regulate the metabolism of glucose.

Lipolysis

lipolyticfat metabolizationlipolyzed
Several studies have shown that cortisol can have a lipolytic effect (promote the breakdown of fat).
Lipolysis is induced by several hormones, including glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and cortisol.

Blood sugar level

blood sugarblood glucoseblood glucose level
It is released with a diurnal cycle and its release is increased in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.
First, during the early slow-wave-sleep stage, a sudden drop in blood levels of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine induce increased blood levels of the hormones leptin, pituitary growth hormone, and prolactin.

Insulin resistance

insulin sensitivityresistantinsulin resistant
Cortisol counteracts insulin, contributes to hyperglycemia by stimulating gluconeogenesis and inhibits the peripheral use of glucose (insulin resistance) by decreasing the translocation of glucose transporters (especially GLUT4) to the cell membrane.
Many hormones can induce insulin resistance including cortisol, growth hormone, and human placental lactogen.

Circadian rhythm

circadian rhythmscircadiansleep-wake cycle
It is released with a diurnal cycle and its release is increased in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. Information about the light/dark cycle is transmitted from the retina to the paired suprachiasmatic nuclei in the hypothalamus.

Effects of stress on memory

Chronic stress can lead to memory losscortisol inhibits memory retrievalimpairs memory
Furthermore, cortisol inhibits memory retrieval of already stored information.
During times of stress, the body reacts by secreting stress hormones into the bloodstream.

Corticosterone

17-Deoxycortisol11β,21-Dihydroprogesterone
Rapid administration of corticosterone (the endogenous type I and type II receptor agonist) or RU28362 (a specific type II receptor agonist) to adrenalectomized animals induced changes in leukocyte distribution.
However, in humans, cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid that is produced primarily in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex.

Collagen

procollagencollagenscollagen fibers
Cortisol down-regulate s the synthesis of collagen.
Cortisol stimulates degradation of (skin) collagen into amino acids.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRHcorticotropin releasing hormoneCRF
Though IL-1 is useful in combating some diseases, endotoxic bacteria have gained an advantage by forcing the hypothalamus to increase cortisol levels (forcing the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone, thus antagonizing IL-1).
ACTH stimulates the synthesis of cortisol, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and DHEA.

Cushing's syndrome

Cushing syndromeCushing’s syndromehypercortisolism
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids such as cortisol.

Adrenal insufficiency

adrenocortical insufficiencyadrenal suppressionhypoadrenalism
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTHcorticotropinadrenocorticotrophic hormone
Changed patterns of serum cortisol levels have been observed in connection with abnormal ACTH levels, mood disorders (such as major depressive disorder), anxiety disorders, psychological stress, and physiological stressors such as hypoglycemia, illness, fever, trauma, surgery, fear, pain, physical exertion, or temperature extremes.
Its principal effects are increased production and release of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland.

Addison's disease

Addison’s diseaseAddisonAutoimmune adrenalitis
Addison's disease arises from problems with the adrenal gland such that not enough of the steroid hormone cortisol and possibly aldosterone are produced, most often due to damage by the body's own immune system in the developed world and tuberculosis in the developing world.

Cushing's disease

Inferior petrosal sinus samplingBilateral inferior petrosal sinus samplingCushing disease
Patients with Cushing's disease usually present with one or more signs and symptoms secondary to the presence of excess cortisol or ACTH.

Memory

memorieshuman memorymemory formation
Cortisol works with adrenaline (epinephrine) to create memories of short-term emotional events; this is the proposed mechanism for storage of flash bulb memories, and may originate as a means to remember what to avoid in the future.
Research has shown that direct injections of cortisol or epinephrine help the storage of recent experiences.

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

suprachiasmatic nucleiSCNsuprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
Information about the light/dark cycle is transmitted from the retina to the paired suprachiasmatic nuclei in the hypothalamus.
The SCN sends information to other hypothalamic nuclei and the pineal gland to modulate body temperature and production of hormones such as cortisol and melatonin.

Glucagon

serum glucagon
This is done through its passive influence on glucagon.

Shock (circulatory)

shockcirculatory shocktraumatic shock
This can trigger the hyperkalemia of metabolic shock from surgery.

RU-28362

RU28362
Rapid administration of corticosterone (the endogenous type I and type II receptor agonist) or RU28362 (a specific type II receptor agonist) to adrenalectomized animals induced changes in leukocyte distribution.
This is in contrast to the natural steroid hormones cortisol or corticosterone, which bind to both of the corticosteroid receptors, though they bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor with greater affinity.