Cortisone

cortisoncortisone injectionshistory of the steroid, cortisonepain killing injections
Cortisone is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.wikipedia
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Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
It is one of the main hormones released by the adrenal gland in response to stress.
The glucocorticoids cortisol and cortisone are synthesized in the zona fasciculata; their functions include the regulation of metabolism and immune system suppression.

Corticosteroid

corticosteroidssteroidssteroid
In chemical structure, it is a corticosteroid closely related to cortisol.
Some common naturally occurring steroid hormones are cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone and aldosterone.

Steroid hormone

steroid hormonessteroidal hormonehormone
Cortisone is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.

Glucocorticoid

glucocorticoidssteroidssteroid
Cortisone, a glucocorticoid, and epinephrine (adrenaline) are the main substances released by the body as a reaction to stress.

Pregnane

Pregnanesnorpregnenespregnane steroids
Cortisone is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.

Percy Lavon Julian

Percy JulianPercy L. JulianDr. Percy Julian
On September 30, 1949, Percy Julian announced an improvement in the process of producing cortisone from bile acids.
His work laid the foundation for the steroid drug industry's production of cortisone, other corticosteroids, and birth control pills.

Organ transplantation

organ transplanttransplanttransplantation
Cortisone may also be used to deliberately suppress immune response in persons with autoimmune diseases or following an organ transplant to prevent transplant rejection.
Cortisone had been recently discovered and the more effective azathioprine was identified in 1959, but it was not until the discovery of cyclosporine in 1970 that transplant surgery found a sufficiently powerful immunosuppressive.

Philip Showalter Hench

Philip HenchPhilip S. HenchHench
In 1929, Philip S. Hench and colleagues discovered that cortisone is effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Hench, along with his Mayo Clinic co-worker Edward Calvin Kendall and Swiss chemist Tadeus Reichstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1950 for the discovery of the hormone cortisone, and its application for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Kenneth Callow

Robert Kenneth CallowCallow
In the UK in the early 1950s, John Cornforth and Kenneth Callow at the National Institute for Medical Research collaborated with Glaxo to produce cortisone from hecogenin from sisal plants.
He worked at the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR, Medical Research Council) in Hampstead and Mill Hill, where his work on steroids included contributions to the isolation and characterisation of vitamin D, and the synthesis of cortisone from naturally occurring steroids.

11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

11β-HSD11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
In the peripheral tissues, cortisol is converted to cortisone by the enzyme 11-beta-steroid dehydrogenase.
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) is a family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors:

Edward Calvin Kendall

Edward C. KendallDr. Edward C. KendallE C Kendall
Cortisone was first identified by the American chemists Edward Calvin Kendall and Harold L. Mason while researching at the Mayo Clinic.
The compound was eventually named cortisone.

Bigger Than Life

Addiction to cortisone was the subject of the 1956 motion picture, Bigger Than Life, produced by and starring James Mason.
Bigger Than Life is an American DeLuxe Color CinemaScope drama film made in 1956 directed by Nicholas Ray and starring James Mason, who also co-wrote and produced the film, about a school teacher and family man whose life spins out of control upon becoming addicted to cortisone.

Mayo Clinic

Mayo FoundationMayo Clinic Health SystemMayo brothers
Cortisone was first identified by the American chemists Edward Calvin Kendall and Harold L. Mason while researching at the Mayo Clinic.
Two Mayo Clinic staff members, Edward Kendall, Ph.D., and Philip Hench, M.D., were awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1950 for their discovery of cortisone.

Tadeusz Reichstein

Tadeus ReichsteinProfessor Tadeus ReichsteinReichstein
Kendall was awarded the 1950 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine along with Philip S. Hench and Tadeus Reichstein for the discovery of adrenal cortex hormones, their structures, and their functions.
Together with Edward Calvin Kendall and Philip Showalter Hench, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1950 for their work on hormones of the adrenal cortex which culminated in the isolation of cortisone.

Central serous retinopathy

Central serous chorioretinopathy
There is extensive evidence to the effect that corticosteroids (e.g. cortisone), commonly used to treat inflammations, allergies, skin conditions and even certain eye conditions, can trigger CSR, aggravate it and cause relapses.

Steroid

steroidssteroidogenesisbiosynthesis of steroids
Cortisone is one of several end-products of a process called steroidogenesis.

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
In chemical structure, it is a corticosteroid closely related to cortisol.

Intravenous therapy

intravenousintravenouslyinjection into a vein
It is used to treat a variety of ailments and can be administered intravenously, orally, intra-articularly (into a joint), or transcutaneously.

Oral administration

by mouthoralorally active
It is used to treat a variety of ailments and can be administered intravenously, orally, intra-articularly (into a joint), or transcutaneously.

Transdermal

applied to the skintransdermal administrationgel
It is used to treat a variety of ailments and can be administered intravenously, orally, intra-articularly (into a joint), or transcutaneously.

Adrenaline

epinephrineadrenaline junkieadrenalin
Cortisone, a glucocorticoid, and epinephrine (adrenaline) are the main substances released by the body as a reaction to stress.

Fight-or-flight response

stress responsefight or flightfight-or-flight
They elevate blood pressure and prepare the body for a fight or flight response.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
A cortisone injection can be used to give short-term pain relief and reduce the swelling from inflammation of a joint, tendon, or bursa in, for example, the joints of the knee, elbow, and shoulder and into a broken coccyx.

Joint

jointsarticulationarticulated
It is used to treat a variety of ailments and can be administered intravenously, orally, intra-articularly (into a joint), or transcutaneously. A cortisone injection can be used to give short-term pain relief and reduce the swelling from inflammation of a joint, tendon, or bursa in, for example, the joints of the knee, elbow, and shoulder and into a broken coccyx.

Tendon

tendonssinewtendinous
A cortisone injection can be used to give short-term pain relief and reduce the swelling from inflammation of a joint, tendon, or bursa in, for example, the joints of the knee, elbow, and shoulder and into a broken coccyx.