Corvée

corveecorvee laborcorvée laborforced laborstatute labourcorvee labourfanompoanacorvée labourforced labourimpressed labor
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.wikipedia
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Tax

taxationtaxeslevy
As such it represents a form of levy (taxation).
In modern taxation systems, governments levy taxes in money; but in-kind and corvée taxation are characteristic of traditional or pre-capitalist states and their functional equivalents.

Haiti

Republic of HaitiHaïtiHaitian
However, the application of the term is not limited to that time or place; corvée has existed in modern and ancient Egypt, ancient Sumer, ancient Israel under Solomon, ancient Rome, China and Japan, everywhere in continental Europe, the Incan civilization, Haiti under Henri Christophe and under American occupation (1915–1934), and Portugal's African colonies until the mid-1960s.
Christophe established a semi-feudal corvée system, with a rigid education and economic code.

Henri Christophe

Henri IHenry ChristopheChristophe
However, the application of the term is not limited to that time or place; corvée has existed in modern and ancient Egypt, ancient Sumer, ancient Israel under Solomon, ancient Rome, China and Japan, everywhere in continental Europe, the Incan civilization, Haiti under Henri Christophe and under American occupation (1915–1934), and Portugal's African colonies until the mid-1960s.
Under his policies of corvée, or forced labor, the Kingdom earned revenues from agricultural production, primarily sugar; but the people resented the system.

Serfdom

serfserfsvillagers
In Medieval Europe, the tasks that serfs or villeins were required to perform on a yearly basis for their lords were called opera riga.
In the Austrian Empire serfdom was abolished by the 1781 Serfdom Patent; corvée continued to exist until 1848.

Robot

robotsbotbots
The word "robota" turned out to be optimal for Czech writer Karel Čapek who, after a recommendation by his brother Josef Čapek, introduced the word "robot" for (originally anthropomorphic) machines that do unpaid work for their owners in his 1920 play R.U.R..
The word robota means literally "corvée", "serf labor", and figuratively "drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech and also (more general) "work", "labor" in many Slavic languages (e.g.: Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Polish, Macedonian, Ukrainian, archaic Czech, as well as robot in Hungarian).

Egyptian Public Works

public worksDelta BarrageEgypt's Public Works
Until the late 19th century, many of the Egyptian Public Works including the Suez Canal were built using corvée labour.
It should be mentioned here however that the entire canal was constructed using the hated corvée system, which Muhammad Ali and his successors used extensively and which was finally abolished under Khedive Ismail during the digging of the Suez Canal.

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianAncient Egyptian
From the Egyptian Old Kingdom (ca 2613 BC) onward, (the 4th Dynasty), corvée labour helped in 'government' projects; during the times of the Nile River floods, labour was used for construction projects such as pyramids, temples, quarries, canals, roads, and other works.
Farmers were also subject to a labor tax and were required to work on irrigation or construction projects in a corvée system.

Karel Čapek

Karel CapekKarelČapek
The word "robota" turned out to be optimal for Czech writer Karel Čapek who, after a recommendation by his brother Josef Čapek, introduced the word "robot" for (originally anthropomorphic) machines that do unpaid work for their owners in his 1920 play R.U.R..
The word robota means literally "corvée", "serf labor", and figuratively "drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech.

Seigneurial system of New France

seigneurseigneuryseigneurial system
The corvée also continued to exist under the Seigneurial system in what had been New France, in British North America.

Unfree labour

forced laborforced labourunfree labor
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year. Governor-General Gallieni then implemented a hybrid corvée and poll tax, partly for revenue, partly for labour resources (the French had just abolished slavery there), and partly to move away from a subsistence economy; the last feature involved paying small amounts for the forced labour.
Unfree labour includes all forms of slavery, and related institutions (e.g. debt slavery, serfdom, corvée and labour camps).

Suez Canal

Suez Canal ZoneSuezCanal Zone
Until the late 19th century, many of the Egyptian Public Works including the Suez Canal were built using corvée labour.
The excavation took some 10 years using forced labour (corvée) of Egyptian workers during the first years.

Opera publica

In the Late Roman Empire the citizens performed opera publica in lieu of paying taxes; often it consisted of road and bridge work.

Socage

soccagesocmanFree socage
Corvée labour (specifically: Socage) was essential in the feudal economic system of the Habsburg monarchy – later Austrian Empire – and most German states that have belonged to the Holy Roman Empire.

Inca Empire

IncaIncasIncan
However, the application of the term is not limited to that time or place; corvée has existed in modern and ancient Egypt, ancient Sumer, ancient Israel under Solomon, ancient Rome, China and Japan, everywhere in continental Europe, the Incan civilization, Haiti under Henri Christophe and under American occupation (1915–1934), and Portugal's African colonies until the mid-1960s. The Inca empire levied tribute labor through a system called Mit'a which was perceived as a public service to the empire.
Spanish colonial officials used the Inca mita corvée labor system for colonial aims, sometimes brutally.

Land reform in Romania

land reformagrarian reformland reforms
A land reform took place in 1864, after the Danubian Principalities became unified and formed The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which abolished the corvée and turned the peasants into free proprietors.
His proclamation announced to the peasants: "The corvée is forever abolished and you are henceforth free proprietors in the places subjected to your control".

Grand Canal (China)

Grand CanalGrand Canal of ChinaBeijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal
Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor, and following dynasties imposed it for public works like the Great Wall, the Grand Canal, and the system of national roads and highways.
The scholar Gu Yanwu of the early Qing dynasty (1644–1912) estimated that the previous Ming dynasty had to employ 47,004 full-time laborers recruited by the lijia corvée system in order to maintain the entire canal system.

Madagascar

MalagasyMadagascanMalagasy politician
France annexed Madagascar as a colony in the late 19th century.
She made heavy use of the traditional practice of fanompoana (forced labor as tax payment) to complete public works projects and develop a standing army of between 20,000 and 30,000 Merina soldiers, whom she deployed to pacify outlying regions of the island and further expand the Kingdom of Merina to encompass most of Madagascar.

Serfdom in Russia

serfsserfdomserf
In the context of the history of Russia, the term corvée is also sometimes used to translate the terms barshchina or boyarshchina, which refer to the obligatory work that the Russian serfs performed for the pomeshchik (Russian landed nobility) on the pomeshchik's land.
The origins of serfdom in Russia (крепостничество, krepostnichestvo) may be traced to the 12th century, when the exploitation of the so-called zakups on arable lands закупы, roleyniye (pashenniye) zakupy) and corvée smerds (Russian term for corvée is барщина, barschina) was the closest to what is now known as serfdom.

Nuribta

Of the 382–Amarna letters, it is an example of an undamaged letter, from Biridiya of Megiddo, entitled: "Furnishing corvée workers". See: city Nuribta.

Rwanda

Republic of RwandaRuandaRwandan
In Rwanda, the centuries-old tradition of umuganda, or community labor, still continues, usually in the form of one Saturday a month when citizens are required to perform this work.
Rwabugiri conquered several smaller states, expanded the kingdom west and north, and initiated administrative reforms; these included ubuhake, in which Tutsi patrons ceded cattle, and therefore privileged status, to Hutu or Tutsi clients in exchange for economic and personal service, and uburetwa, a corvée system in which Hutu were forced to work for Tutsi chiefs.

Tenant farmer

tenant farmerstenant farmingtenant
An example is the campesino village of Ocra close to Cusco, where each adult is required to perform 4 days of unpaid labor per month on community projects.
This taxation could be in the form of corvée, but payment in money was usually cheaper if possible.

Mit'a

mitaforced labormit'a system
The Inca empire levied tribute labor through a system called Mit'a which was perceived as a public service to the empire.
Mit'a was effectively a form of tribute to the Inca government in the form of labor, i.e. a corvée.

Regulamentul Organic

Organic StatuteOrganic RegulationOrganic Regulations
The 14 days of labour due to the land-owner – as prescribed by the code of the corvée in the Règlement organique – actually amounted to 42 days, because the working day was considered the time required for the production of an average daily product, "and that average daily product is determined in so crafty a way that no Cyclops would be done with it in 24 hours."
The success of the grain trade was secured by a conservative take on property, which restricted the right of peasants to exploit for their own gain those plots of land they leased on boyar estates (the Regulament allowed them to consume around 70% of the total harvest per plot leased, while boyars were allowed to use a third of their estate as they pleased, without any legal duty toward the neighbouring peasant workforce); at the same time, small properties, created after Constantine Mavrocordatos had abolished serfdom in the 1740s, proved less lucrative in the face of competition by large estates—boyars profited from the consequences, as more landowning peasants had to resort to leasing plots while still owing corvées to their lords.

Indigénat

Code de l'indigénat1881 Indigenous codeIndigenat
In Africa, these included the corvée (forced labor for specific projects), Prestation (taxes paid in forced labor), Head Tax (often arbitrary monetary taxes, food and property requisitioning, market taxes), and the Blood Tax (forced conscription to the native Tirailleur units).

Poll tax

head taxpoll taxespoll-tax
Governor-General Gallieni then implemented a hybrid corvée and poll tax, partly for revenue, partly for labour resources (the French had just abolished slavery there), and partly to move away from a subsistence economy; the last feature involved paying small amounts for the forced labour.