Cossack Hetmanate

The Zaporizhian Cossack Host in 1654
Deserted Fields, simply Ukraine in 1648 (Camporum Desertorum vulgo Ukraina) - north at bottom of map
The Zaporizhian Cossack Host in 1654
Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky's triumphal entry to Kyiv in 1648
General map of the borders of the new lands of Ukraine in 1649, or Palatinates of Podolia, Kiov, Braclav
The Zaporizhian Cossack host in 1654 (against the backdrop of contemporary Ukraine)
Cossack raider with a head of a Tatar
To war!, by (Mykola Pymonenko, 1902)
The St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral in Kyiv, built with funds from Hetman Ivan Mazepa
A 1720 map by Johann Baptist Homann: Ukraine, or Cossack Land
The Mezhyhirskyi Monastery, located on the right bank of the Dnieper, Fyodor Solntsev, 1843
Ukraine, 1740-50
Hetman Danylo Apostol
Noble girl
Noble lady
Noble lady
Nobleman
Cossack colonel
Cossack captain
Cossack secretary
Cossack private
City girl
City woman
Townsman
Peasant girl
Peasant girl
Peasant woman
Peasant man

Ukrainian Cossack state in the region of what is today Central Ukraine between 1648 and 1764 (although its administrative-judicial system persisted until 1782).

- Cossack Hetmanate

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Zaporozhian Sich

Historical map of the Ukrainian Cossack Hetmanate (dark green) and of the territory of the Zaporozhian Cossacks (purple) under the rule of the Russian Empire (1751)
"Rear guard of Zaporozhians" by Józef Brandt (oil on canvas; 72 × 112 cm, National Museum in Warsaw)
Zaporozhian Cossack, 18th century.
Zaporozhian Cossacks Prayer, fragment of the icon of Protection of Holy Virgin Mary.
Cossacks compose an answer to a letter from the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed IV, (Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire, by Ilya Repin)
A Zaporozhian Sich Rada (Council)
Zaporozhian Cossacks sacked Crimean Kaffa and freed the slaves in 1616.

The Zaporozhian Sich (, Zaporoz'ka Sich; Sicz Zaporoska; Запорожская Сечь, also Вольностi Вiйська Запорозького Низового, Volnosti Viyska Zaporozkoho Nyzovoho; Free lands of the Zaporozhian Host the Lower) was a semi-autonomous polity and proto-state of Cossacks that existed between the 16th to 18th centuries, including as an independent stratocratic state within the Cossack Hetmanate for over a hundred years, centred around the region now home to the Kakhovka Reservoir and spanning the lower Dnieper river in Ukraine.

Ukrainian Hetman Bohdan Zinoviy Khmelnytsky

Hetman

Political title from Central and Eastern Europe, historically assigned to military commanders.

Political title from Central and Eastern Europe, historically assigned to military commanders.

Ukrainian Hetman Bohdan Zinoviy Khmelnytsky
Hetman Jan Amor Tarnowski, by Bacciarelli
Hetman Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł
Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz wearing a traditional costume of Polish magnates
Janusz Radziwiłł, one of the most powerful people in the Commonwealth at the time

A hetman was the highest military officer in the hetmanates area of Ukraine, the Zaporizhian Host (1649–1764), and the Ukrainian State (1918).

Boyar Buturlin receiving an oath of loyalty to the Russian Tsar from Bogdan Khmelnitsky

Pereiaslav Agreement

Official meeting that convened for ceremonial pledge of allegiance by Cossacks to the Tsar of Russia in the town of Pereiaslav, in central Ukraine, in January 1654.

Official meeting that convened for ceremonial pledge of allegiance by Cossacks to the Tsar of Russia in the town of Pereiaslav, in central Ukraine, in January 1654.

Boyar Buturlin receiving an oath of loyalty to the Russian Tsar from Bogdan Khmelnitsky

The ceremony took place concurrently with ongoing negotiations that started on the initiative of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky to address the issue of the Cossack Hetmanate with the ongoing Khmelnytsky Uprising against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and which concluded the Treaty of Pereiaslav (also known as the March Articles ).

1907 postcard by Polish painter Kajetan Saryusz-Wolski depicting the national symbols of Ruthenia: 
1. Archangel Michael, the patron of Kyiv and Dnieper Ukraine. 
2. Ruthenian lion, the symbol of Western Ukraine. 
3. Yellow and blue, the national colors used since the 1848 Spring of Nations. 
4. Coats of arms of Halych, Lviv and Kyiv. 
5. Motto: Ukraine has not yet perished!

Ruthenia

Exonym, originally used in Medieval Latin as one of several terms for Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia, and, after their collapse, for East Slavic and Eastern Orthodox regions of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, corresponding to what is now Ukraine and Belarus.

Exonym, originally used in Medieval Latin as one of several terms for Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia, and, after their collapse, for East Slavic and Eastern Orthodox regions of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, corresponding to what is now Ukraine and Belarus.

1907 postcard by Polish painter Kajetan Saryusz-Wolski depicting the national symbols of Ruthenia: 
1. Archangel Michael, the patron of Kyiv and Dnieper Ukraine. 
2. Ruthenian lion, the symbol of Western Ukraine. 
3. Yellow and blue, the national colors used since the 1848 Spring of Nations. 
4. Coats of arms of Halych, Lviv and Kyiv. 
5. Motto: Ukraine has not yet perished!
Ruthenian lion, which was used as a representative Coat of arms of Ruthenia during the Council of Constance in the 15th century
Map of the areas claimed and controlled by the Carpathian Ruthenia, the Lemko Republic and the West Ukrainian People's Republic in 1918
Autonomous Subcarpathian Ruthenia and independent Carpatho-Ukraine 1938–1939.

During the early modern period, the term Ruthenia started to be mostly associated with the Ruthenian lands of the Polish Crown and the Cossack Hetmanate.

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1667: dark green indicates areas ceded to the Tsardom of Russia at Andrusovo

Truce of Andrusovo

The Truce of Andrusovo (Rozejm w Andruszowie, Андрусовское перемирие, Andrusovskoye Pieriemiriye, also sometimes known as Treaty of Andrusovo) established a thirteen-and-a-half year truce, signed in 1667 between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which had fought the Russo-Polish War since 1654 over the territories of modern-day Ukraine and Belarus.

The Truce of Andrusovo (Rozejm w Andruszowie, Андрусовское перемирие, Andrusovskoye Pieriemiriye, also sometimes known as Treaty of Andrusovo) established a thirteen-and-a-half year truce, signed in 1667 between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which had fought the Russo-Polish War since 1654 over the territories of modern-day Ukraine and Belarus.

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1667: dark green indicates areas ceded to the Tsardom of Russia at Andrusovo

Representatives of the Cossack Hetmanate were not allowed.

Pyotr Rumyantsev

One of the foremost Russian generals of the 18th century.

One of the foremost Russian generals of the 18th century.

The Rumyantsev Obelisk (1799–1801) was moved from the Field of Mars to St. Andrew's Cathedral by Carlo Rossi in 1818.
Rumyantsev Zadunaysky Mansion, built in 1782. A number of researchers called the famous architect of the project Vasily Bazhenov, others attribute the construction to M.F. Kazakov. There is no consensus on the issue; it is possible that both the architects were involved in the project
Kachanivka Palace, Ukraine
Governors' Palace in Kyiv
Rumyantsev Residence in Gomel, Belarus
Nikolai Rumyantsev's mansion on English Quay, St. Petersburg

He governed Little Russia in the name of Empress Catherine the Great from the abolition of the Cossack Hetmanate in 1764 until Catherine's death 32 years later.

Zaporozhian Host

Term for a military force inhabiting or originating from Zaporizhzhia, the territory beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River in what is Central Ukraine today, from the 15th to the 18th centuries.

Term for a military force inhabiting or originating from Zaporizhzhia, the territory beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River in what is Central Ukraine today, from the 15th to the 18th centuries.

Cossack Hetmanate, a Cossack state between 1649 and 1764

Entrance of Bohdan Khmelnytsky to Kyiv, Mykola Ivasyuk

Khmelnytsky Uprising

Entrance of Bohdan Khmelnytsky to Kyiv, Mykola Ivasyuk
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648
Bohdan Khmelnytsky with Tuhai Bey at Lviv, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1885, National Museum in Warsaw
Meeting of Khmelnytsky with Tuhaj Bej by Juliusz Kossak
The Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars diminished the scope of Polish–Lithuanian control
Massacre of 3000–5000 Polish captives after the battle of Batih in 1652
First edition of Yeven Mezulah (1653): "I write of the Evil Decrees of Chmiel, may his name be obliterated... in (5)'408 to '411 Anno Mundi"
Cossack army in 1648.

The Khmelnytsky Uprising, also known as the Cossack-Polish War, the Chmielnicki Uprising, the Khmelnytsky massacre or the Khmelnytsky insurrection, was a Cossack rebellion that took place between 1648 and 1657 in the eastern territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukraine.

Ivan Mazepa

Used for the artistic and literary works.

Used for the artistic and literary works.

A plate showing Mazepa's coat of arms, once placed on the Chernihiv college.
"Ivan Mazepa, Supreme War Prince of Zaporizhian Cossacks"
Charles XII and Mazepa at Dnieper River after the Battle of Poltava
Mazepa monument in Poltava
10 Hryvnia banknote depicting Ivan Mazepa
10 Hryvnia coin depicting Ivan Mazepa
Monument to Hetman Mazepa (Chernihiv)
"Mazeppa" by Théodore Géricault, based on an episode in Byron's poem when the young Mazeppa is punished by being tied to a wild horse.

In 1687 Ivan Mazepa accused Samoylovych of conspiring to secede from Russia, secured his ouster, and was elected the Hetman of Left-bank Ukraine in Kolomak, with the support of Vasily Galitzine.

Pereiaslav

Ancient city in the Kyiv Oblast (province) of central Ukraine, located near the confluence of Alta and Trubizh rivers some 95 km south of the nation's capital Kyiv.

Ancient city in the Kyiv Oblast (province) of central Ukraine, located near the confluence of Alta and Trubizh rivers some 95 km south of the nation's capital Kyiv.

Hanna Knyazyeva-Minenko
Coat of arms of Pereiaslav adopted in 1620.
Replica of a ХІ century Kyivan Rus house in the Museum of Folk Architecture and Household Traditions
An old post office in the Museum of Folk Architecture and Household Traditions
The Rushnyk Museum, in the Museum of Folk Architecture and Household Traditions
Assension Cathedral
Kobzars Museum
A church in the Old Town of Pereiaslav
A monument dedicated to the Treaty of Pereiaslav in the main square
Bohdan Khmelnytsky square in Pereiaslav
Church of the Intercession

The treaty resulted in the establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate in left-bank Ukraine subject to the Tsardom of Russia, and to the Russo-Polish War (1654-1667).