Embera girl dressed for a dance
A stone sphere created by the Diquis culture at the National Museum of Costa Rica. The sphere is the icon of the country's cultural identity.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
The Ujarrás historical site in the Orosí Valley, Cartago province. The church was built between 1686 and 1693.
"New Caledonia", the ill-fated Scottish Darien scheme colony in the Bay of Caledonia, west of the Gulf of Darien
The 1849 national coat of arms was featured in the first postal stamp issued in 1862.
Santo Domingo Church
Costa Rica map of Köppen climate classification
1903 political cartoon. The US government, working with separatists in Panama, engineered a Panamanian declaration of independence from Colombia, then sent US warships and marines to Panama.
Red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas)
US President Theodore Roosevelt sitting on a steam shovel at the Panama Canal, 1906
Real GPD per capita development in Costa Rica
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907
An Intel microprocessor facility in Costa Rica that was, at one time, responsible for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 5% of the country's GDP.
Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies of land redistribution.
A proportional representation of Costa Rica's exports, 2019
US President Jimmy Carter shakes hands with General Omar Torrijos after signing the Panama Canal Treaties (September 7, 1977).
Countries (in blue) which have signed Free Trade Agreements with Costa Rica
The aftermath of urban warfare during the US invasion of Panama, 1989
A coffee plantation in the Orosí Valley
British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson swapped football shirts with the President of Panama, Juan Carlos Varela in London, May 14, 2018.
An industrial park in Heredia
A map of Panama
Poás Volcano Crater is one of the country's main tourist attractions.
La Palma, Darién
The Chagres River
Colón Harbor, 2000
The extent of Costa Rica's western EEZ in the Pacific
Panama map of Köppen climate classification
Symbolic act of Costa Rica's army abolition by president José Figueres Ferrer on December 1, 1948, at Cuartel Bellavista (former army headquarters), site which now hosts the National Museum
A cooler climate is common in the Panamanian highlands.
Costa Rica population pyramid in 2021
The National Assembly of Panama
Panama's President-elect Juan Carlos Varela and Vice President Isabel Saint Malo with US Secretary of State John Kerry just before Varela's inauguration in 2014
Basílica de Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles (Basilica of Our Lady of the Angels), during 2007 pilgrimage
GDP per capita development Panama since 1950
Las Carretas (oxcarts) are a national symbol.
A proportional representation of Panama exports, 2019
Costa Rican breakfast with gallo pinto
A Panamax ship in transit through the Miraflores locks, Panama Canal
Costa Rica supporters at the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil
Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the Panama Papers leak on April 15, 2016
The University of Costa Rica is the largest university of the country and one of the most recognizable across Central America
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's largest airport
Development of life expectancy in Costa Rica
Zapatilla Island, Panama
Hospital Calderón Guardia, named after the president who instituted universal health care across the country in 1941
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
Hospital CIMA in Escazú
Population pyramid, 2016
Panama's population, 1961–2003
Panama City, Panama's capital
Plaza de la independencia, Panama City
Erika Ender
A couple dancing Panamanian Cumbia
Panamanian baseball catcher Carlos Ruiz during 2007 Spring Training

Panama (, ; Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country in Central America and South America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

- Panama

Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and maritime border with Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

- Costa Rica

12 related topics



Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

Location map of the pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia
An illustration of the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, a major Spanish victory in the War of Jenkins' Ear
Many intellectual leaders of the independence process participated in the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.
The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle that ensured success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.
The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process.
Formation of the present Colombia since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire
The Bogotazo in 1948
The Axis of Peace and Memory, a memorial to the victims of the Colombian conflict (1964–present)
Former President Juan Manuel Santos signed a peace accord
Relief map
Colombia map of Köppen climate classification
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs
The national flower of Colombia, the endemic orchid Cattleya trianae, is named for Colombian botanist and physician José Jerónimo Triana.
Casa de Nariño is the official home and principal workplace of the President of Colombia.
Capitolio Nacional seat of the Congress.
The VII Summit of the Pacific Alliance: Former President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is second from the left.
Arpía III of the Colombian Air Force
Colombia GDP by sector in 2017.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Colombian Stock Exchange is part of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).
Colciencias is a Colombian Government agency that supports fundamental and applied research.
Port of Cartagena.
Population density of Colombia in 2007
The Las Lajas Sanctuary in the southern Colombian Department of Nariño
The Nobel literature prize winner Gabriel García Márquez
Vargas Swamp Lancers, artwork by Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox, an architectural site with colonial elements
Villa de Leyva main plaza
Regions of Colombia by its traditional music.
Colombian tiple
Teatro Colón of Bogotá houses the Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá, one of the biggest theater festivals in the world.
The Cartagena Film Festival is the oldest cinema event in Latin America. The central focus is on films from Ibero-America.
Sancocho de gallina criolla is a traditional soup in Colombia.
Mariana Pajón is a Colombian cyclist, two-time Olympic gold medalist and BMX World Champion.
Colombia leads the annual América Economía ranking of the best clinics and hospitals in Latin America.
M5 building – National University of Colombia, designed by Pedro Nel Gómez
Mario Laserna Building – University of Los Andes

It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and Panama to the northwest.

It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.


Guaymi Indian painting

The Ngäbe are an indigenous people within the territories of present-day Panama and Costa Rica in Central America.

Posthumous portrait of Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.

Christopher Columbus

Italian explorer and navigator who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and colonization of the Americas.

Italian explorer and navigator who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and colonization of the Americas.

Posthumous portrait of Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
Christopher Columbus House in Genoa, an 18-century reconstruction of the house in which Columbus grew up. The original was likely destroyed during the 1684 bombardment of Genoa.
Columbus's copy of The Travels of Marco Polo, with his handwritten notes in Latin written on the margins
Toscanelli's notions of the geography of the Atlantic Ocean (shown superimposed on a modern map), which directly influenced Columbus's plans
"Columbus map", drawn c. 1490 in the Lisbon mapmaking workshop of Bartolomeo and Christopher Columbus
Columbus offers his services to the King of Portugal; Chodowiecki, 17th century
The Alhambra, where Columbus received permission from the Catholic Monarchs for his first voyage
The voyages of Christopher Columbus (conjectural)
First voyage (conjectural). Modern place names in black, Columbus's place names in blue
Columbus's second voyage
Third voyage
Columbus's fourth voyage
Coat of arms granted to Christopher Columbus and the House of Colon by Pope Alexander VI motu proprio in 1502
Replicas of Niña, Pinta and Santa María sailed from Spain to the Chicago Columbian Exposition in 1893
Landing of Columbus at the Island of Guanahaní, West Indies (1846), by John Vanderlyn. The landing of Columbus became a powerful icon of American genesis in the 19th century.
Discovery of America, a postage stamp from the Faroe Islands commemorates the voyages of discovery of Leif Erikson (c. 1000) and Christopher Columbus (1492)
The Columbus Monument in Columbus Circle, New York City
The remains of the pedestal base of the Columbus statue in the Baltimore inner harbor area. The statue was thrown into the harbor on 4 July 2020, as part of the George Floyd protests.

He spent two months exploring the coasts of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, seeking a strait in the western Caribbean through which he could sail to the Indian Ocean.

Sailing south along the Nicaraguan coast, he found a channel that led into Almirante Bay in Panama on 5 October.

Organization of American States

International organization that was founded on 30 April 1948 for the purposes of solidarity and co-operation among its member states within the Americas.

International organization that was founded on 30 April 1948 for the purposes of solidarity and co-operation among its member states within the Americas.

The Pan American Union Building shortly after its construction in Washington, D. C., 1910
Logo in 1909 publication
Pan American Union headquarters building in Washington, D.C., 1943.
Seal with the official name in English.
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo speaks at the OAS Permanent Council in January 2019.
A session of the OAS's thirty-fifth General Assembly in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States, June 2005
Those attending the Extraordinary Assembly of the OAS voted to suspend Honduras.
Statue of Isabella I the Catholic Queen in front of the seat of the Organization of American States in Washington, D.C.

This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela), Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, The United Provinces of Central America, and Mexico but the grandly titled "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation" was ultimately ratified only by Gran Colombia.

🇨🇷 costa rica

Pacific Ocean

Largest and deepest of Earth's five oceanic divisions.

Largest and deepest of Earth's five oceanic divisions.

Partial picture of the Pacific Ocean from space, by the Apollo 11 crew
Model of a Fijian drua, an example of an Austronesian vessel with a double-canoe (catamaran) hull and a crab claw sail
Map showing the migration of the Austronesian peoples, the first seaborne human migration in history (c.3000-1500 BCE)
Map showing a large number of Spanish expeditions across the Pacific Ocean from the 16th to 18th centuries including the Manila galleon route between Acapulco and Manila, the first transpacific trade route in history.
Universalis Cosmographia, the Waldseemüller map dated 1507, from a time when the nature of the Americas was ambiguous, particularly North America, as a possible part of Asia, was the first map to show the Americas separating two distinct oceans. South America was generally considered a "new world" and shows the name "America" for the first time, after Amerigo Vespucci
The bathyscaphe Trieste, before her record dive to the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 23 January 1960
Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars taking over Tahiti on 9 September 1842
Sunset over the Pacific Ocean as seen from the International Space Station. tops of thunderclouds are also visible.
The island geography of the Pacific Ocean Basin
Regions, island nations and territories of Oceania
Tarawa Atoll in the Republic of Kiribati
Sunset in Monterey County, California, U.S.
Impact of El Niño and La Niña on North America
Typhoon Tip at global peak intensity on 12 October 1979
Ring of Fire. The Pacific is ringed by many volcanoes and oceanic trenches.
Ulawun stratovolcano situated on the island of New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Mount Saint Helens in 2020
Pacific Ocean currents have created 3 "islands" of debris.
Marine debris on a Hawaiian coast
Prime Minister Suga declined to drink the bottle of Fukushima's treated radioactive water that he was holding, which would otherwise be discharged to the Pacific. 2020.
Made in 1529, the Diogo Ribeiro map was the first to show the Pacific at about its proper size
Map of the Pacific Ocean during European Exploration, circa 1754.
Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.loc.gov/item/prn-01-093/|title=Library Acquires Copy of 1507 Waldseemüller World Map – News Releases (Library of Congress)|publisher=Loc.gov|access-date=April 20, 2013}}</ref>
Map of the Pacific Ocean during European Exploration, circa 1702–1707
Ladrilleros Beach in Colombia on the coast of Chocó natural region
Tahuna maru islet, French Polynesia
Los Molinos on the coast of Southern Chile

Costa Rica


Chiriquí Province

Beach in Chiriquí National Park

Chiriquí is a province of Panama located on the western coast; it is the second most developed province in the country, after the Panamá Province.

The province of Chiriquí is bordered to the north by the province of Bocas del Toro, to the west by Costa Rica, to the east by the province of Veraguas, and to the south by the Pacific Ocean, specifically the Gulf of Chiriquí.

World administrative levels

Presidential system

Form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers.

Form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers.

World administrative levels

The list of the world's 22 older democracies includes only two countries (Costa Rica and the United States) with presidential systems.

🇵🇦 Panama

Spanish Empire

Colonial empire governed by Spain and its predecessor states between 1492 and 1976.

Colonial empire governed by Spain and its predecessor states between 1492 and 1976.

All areas of the world that were ever part of the Spanish Empire
Crowns and Kingdoms of the Catholic Monarchs in Europe (1500)
The Capitulation of Granada by F. Pradilla: Muhammad XII (Boabdil) surrenders to Ferdinand and Isabella.
El gran capitán at the Battle of Cerignola.
The conquest of the Canary Islands (1402–1496)
Iberian 'mare clausum' in the Age of Discovery
Monument to Columbus, Statue commemorating New World discoveries. Western façade of monument. Isabella at the center, Columbus on the left, a cross on her right. Plaza de Colón, Madrid (1881–85)
The return of Columbus, 1493
Castile and Portugal divided the world in The Treaty of Tordesillas.
Iberian-born pope Alexander VI promulgated bulls that invested the Spanish monarchs with ecclesiastical power in the newly found lands overseas.
Ferdinand the Catholic points across the Atlantic to the landing of Columbus, with naked natives. Frontispiece of Giuliano Dati's Lettera, 1493.
Columbus landing in 1492 planting the flag of Spain, by John Vanderlyn
Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. Founded in 1502, the city is the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in the New World.
Cumaná, Venezuela. Founded in 1510, the city is the oldest continuously inhabited European city in the continental Americas.
Battle of Vega Real (1494)
Spanish territories in the New World around 1515
Approximate reconstruction of the route of Juan Ponce de León on his voyage of discovery of Florida (1513)
Cerro de Potosí, discovered in 1545, the rich, sole source of silver from Peru, worked by compulsory indigenous labor called mit'a
Main trade routes of the Spanish Empire
Spanish galleon, the mainstay of transatlantic and transpacific shipping, engraving by Albert Durer
Cover of the English translation of the Asiento contract signed by Britain and Spain in 1713 as part of the Utrecht treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession. The contract broke the monopoly of Spanish slave traders to sell slaves in Spanish America
Philip V of Spain (r. 1700–1746), the first Spanish monarch of the House of Bourbon.
Representation of the two powers, church and state, symbolized by the altar and the throne, with the presence of the king Charles III and the Pope Clement XIV, seconded by the Viceroy, Antonio Bucareli, and the Archbishop of Mexico, Alonso Núñez de Haro, respectively, before the Virgin Mary. "Glorification of the Immaculate Conception".
San Felipe de Barajas Fortress Cartagena de Indias. In 1741, the Spanish repulsed a British attack on this fortress in present-day Colombia in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias.
Portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by Friedrich Georg Weitsch, 1806
Spanish expedition to Oran (1732)
Battle of Cartagena de Indias (1741). Spain managed to defeat Britain and inflict heavy casualties.
Painting of Bernardo de Gálvez at the Siege of Pensacola (1781) during the American War of Independence. Gálvez cleared the south part of the United States of the British fortresses
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790.
Spanish territorial claims on the West Coast of North America in the 18th century, contested by the Russians and the British. Most of what Spain claimed in Nootka was not directly occupied or controlled.
Spanish Empire in 1790. In North America, Spain claimed lands west of the Mississippi River and the Pacific coast from California to Alaska, but it did not control them on the ground. The crown constructed missions and presidios in coastal California and sent maritime expeditions to the Pacific Northwest to assert sovereignty.
Churruca's Death, oil on canvas about the Battle of Trafalgar by Eugenio Álvarez Dumont, Prado Museum.
Spanish Constitution of 1812 enacted by the Cortes of Cádiz
The Americas towards the year 1800, the colored territories were considered provinces in some maps of the Spanish Empire.
Spanish troops routing Dominican rebels at Monte Cristi
The explosion of the USS Maine (ACR-1) in Havana Harbor led to U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence
Filipino soldiers during the near end of the Revolution
The Spanish Empire in 1898
A map of Equatorial Guinea
General Prim at the Battle of Tétouan
Spanish officers in Africa in 1920
Morocco and Spanish territories
Villa de Leyva, Colombia plaza de armas. Spain impregnate its public square style in present-day Hispanic America.
Roof tiles are a common Hispanic American architectural element because Spanish colonization. Hospital Escuela Eva Perón in Granadero Baigorria, Santa Fe, Argentina.
A photo of Cathedral of Mexico City, it is one of the largest cathedrals in Americas, built on the ruins of the Aztec main square.
Detail of a Mural by Diego Rivera at the National Palace of Mexico showing the ethnic differences between Agustín de Iturbide, a criollo, and the multiracial Mexican court

The first settlement on the mainland was Santa María la Antigua del Darién in Castilla de Oro (now Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia), settled by Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1510.

Guaymí language

Guaymí, or Ngäbere, also known as Movere, Chiriquí, and Valiente, is spoken by the indigenous Ngäbe people in Panama and Costa Rica.

Central America

Region of North America.

Region of North America.

Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize are historically the seven nations in Central America politically, geographically and culturally.
The seven countries of Central America and their capitals
Central America geography
El Chorreron in El Salvador
One of the hanging bridges of the skywalk at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Monteverde, Costa Rica disappearing into the clouds
Central America and the Caribbean Plate
Linguistic variations of classic Central American Spanish.
Central America map of indigenous people before European contact
Coat of Arms of the Central American Parliament
Federal Republic of Central America, 4 Escudos (1835). Struck in the San Jose, Costa Rica mint (697 were minted)
Secretariat of Central American Economic Integration
The Great Blue Hole off the coast of Belize is a prime ecotourism destination. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Semuc Champey, Guatemala.
The city rail in La Ceiba, Honduras is one of the few remaining passenger train services in Central America
Ancient footprints of Acahualinca, Nicaragua
Stone spheres of Costa Rica
Tazumal, El Salvador
Tikal, Guatemala
Copan, Honduras
Altun Ha, Belize
The United Provinces of Central America
Federal Republic of Central America
National Representation of Central America
Greater Republic of Central America
El Salvador
Costa Rica
Montecristo National Park, El Salvador
Maderas forest, Nicaragua
Texiguat Wildlife Refuge Honduras
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica.
Parque Internacional la Amistad, Panama
Petén–Veracruz moist forests, Guatemala
Lycaste skinneri, Guatemala
Yucca gigantea, El Salvador
Rhyncholaelia digbyana, Honduras
Plumeria, Nicaragua
Guarianthe skinneri, Costa Rica
Peristeria elata, Panama
Prosthechea cochleata, Belize
Resplendent quetzal, Guatemala
Turquoise-browed motmot, El Salvador and Nicaragua
Keel-billed toucan, Belize
Scarlet macaw, Honduras
Clay-colored thrush, Costa Rica
Harpy eagle, Panama
Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador
Lake Atitlán, Guatemala
Mombacho, Nicaragua
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica
Guatemalan textiles
Mola (art form), Panama
El Salvador La Plama art form
Playa Blanca Guatemala
Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador
Roatán, Honduras
Pink Pearl Island Nicaragua
Tamarindo, Costa Rica
Cayos Zapatilla, Panama
Corozal Beach, Belize

Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.