A report on Cotton

Manually decontaminating cotton before processing at an Indian spinning mill (2010)
Cotton ready for harvest in Andhra, south India
Mehrgarh shown in a physical map of the surrounding region
Cotton plants as imagined and drawn by John Mandeville in the 14th century
The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary
A woman in Dhaka clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century
A group of Egyptian fellahs picking cotton by hand
Cotton bales at the port in Bombay, India, 1860s
Adams & Bazemore Cotton Warehouse, Macon, Georgia, c. 1877
Cotton field at Singalandapuram, Rasipuram, India (2017)
Cotton field
Cotton plant
A cotton field, late in the season
Cotton plowing in Togo, 1928
Picking cotton in Armenia in the 1930s. No cotton is grown there today.
Cotton ready for shipment, Houston, Texas (postcard, circa 1911)
Cotton modules in Australia (2007)
Hoeing a cotton field to remove weeds, Greene County, Georgia, US, 1941
Female and nymph cotton harlequin bug
frameless
Offloading freshly harvested cotton into a module builder in Texas; previously built modules can be seen in the background
Cotton being picked by hand in India, 2005
Cotton in a tree
Worldwide cotton production
A display from a British cotton manufacturer of items used in a cotton mill during the Industrial Revolution
A bale of cotton on display at the Louisiana State Cotton Museum in Lake Providence in East Carroll Parish in northeastern Louisiana
Cotton fibers viewed under a scanning electron microscope

Soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

- Cotton
Manually decontaminating cotton before processing at an Indian spinning mill (2010)

92 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Handmade floral patterns on textiles, The production of textiles which were initially artisanal work, has grown into a vast field today that includes the production of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and various fibrous products for different domestic and industrial usages.

Textile

12 links

Umbrella term that includes various fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, filaments, threads, different fabric types, etc. At first, the word "textiles" only referred to woven fabrics.

Umbrella term that includes various fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, filaments, threads, different fabric types, etc. At first, the word "textiles" only referred to woven fabrics.

Handmade floral patterns on textiles, The production of textiles which were initially artisanal work, has grown into a vast field today that includes the production of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and various fibrous products for different domestic and industrial usages.
In textile production, longitudinal yarns are referred to as warp and are interlaced with weft or filing yarns to create a woven fabric.
Weaving
Cloth Merchant's Shop
A replica draper's shop at the Museum of Lincolnshire Life, Lincoln, England
A baby wearing many items of soft winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, scarf and sweater
Technical textile is a branch of textile that focuses on the protection, safety and other functional performance attributes of textiles, unlike domestic textiles, where the primary focus is aesthetics and comfort., an EOD technician wearing a bomb suit Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) suit
Nonwoven geotextile bags are much more robust than woven bags of the same thickness.
Early method of bleaching cotton and linen goods on lawns
thumb|Textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan
thumb|Magnified view of a plain or tabby weave textile
thumb|right|Fabric shop in canal town Mukalla, Yemen
thumb|Late antique textile, Egyptian, now in the Dumbarton Oaks collection
thumb|Mrs. Condé Nast wearing a silk Fortuny tea gown
thumb|right|Textiles made from Alpaca wool at the Otavalo Artisan Market in the Andes Mountains, Ecuador
thumb|The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of warp ikat in Southeast Asia, displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asia people of northwest Romblon.
thumb|right|A double ikat weaving made by the Tausug people from Sulu, made of banana leaf stalk fiber (Abacá)
thumb|right|Advertisement for Zepel, the trade name used to market Teflon as a fabric treatment
thumb|A weaving shed of the Finlayson & Co factory in Tampere, Finland in 1932<ref>Doria-archive of the Finnish National Library{{full citation needed|date=October 2021}}</ref>
thumb|Textile machinery at the Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd, Wales in the 1940s
thumb|right|Cotton fiber
thumb|right|Nylon
thumb|A variety of contemporary fabrics. From the left: evenweave cotton, velvet, printed cotton, calico, felt, satin, silk, hessian, polycotton
thumb|Woven tartan of Clan Campbell, Scotland
thumb|Embroidered skirts by the Alfaro-Nùñez family of Cochas, Peru, using traditional Peruvian embroidery methods<ref>Art-Gourds.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081013043017/http://art-gourds.com/the_craft_embroideries/en|date=2008-10-13}} Traditional Peruvian embroidery production methods</ref>
alt=|thumb|A modern umbrella fabric has specific requirements for colour fastness to light, water and wet rubbing, and permeability
thumb|Appliqué cross. The edges are covered and stiches are hidden. It is overlaid with decorative gold thread.
thumb|Clothing made of textiles, Thailand
thumb|Close-up view of a Barong Tagalog made with piña fiber in the Philippines
thumb|A fabric tunnel in Moulvibazar District, Bangladesh.
Sample of calico printed with a six-colour machine by Walter Crum & Co., from Frederick Crace Calvert, Dyeing and Calico Printing (1878).
thumb|A textile factory in Israel, 1969.

Cotton, flax, jute, hemp, modal and even banana and bamboo fibers are all used in clothing. Piña (pineapple fiber) and ramie are also fibers used in clothing, generally with a blend of other fibers such as cotton. Nettles have also been used to make a fiber and fabric very similar to hemp or flax. The use of milkweed stalk fiber has also been reported, but it tends to be somewhat weaker than other fibers like hemp or flax.

A Roberts loom in a weaving shed in 1835.

Industrial Revolution

8 links

The transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

The transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

A Roberts loom in a weaving shed in 1835.
A Roberts loom in a weaving shed in 1835.
Handloom weaving in 1747, from William Hogarth's Industry and Idleness
European colonial empires at the start of the Industrial Revolution, superimposed upon modern political boundaries.
A weaver in Nürnberg, c. 1524
A model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal. Invented by James Hargreaves in 1764, the spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution.
The only surviving example of a spinning mule built by the inventor Samuel Crompton. The mule produced high-quality thread with minimal labour. Bolton Museum, Greater Manchester
The interior of Marshall's Temple Works in Leeds, West Yorkshire
Lombe's Mill site today, rebuilt as Derby Silk Mill
The reverberatory furnace could produce cast iron using mined coal. The burning coal remained separate from the iron and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities like sulfur and silica. This opened the way to increased iron production.
The Iron Bridge, Shropshire, England, the world's first bridge constructed of iron opened in 1781.
Horizontal (lower) and vertical (upper) cross-sections of a single puddling furnace. A. Fireplace grate; B. Firebricks; C. Cross binders; D. Fireplace; E. Work door; F. Hearth; G. Cast iron retaining plates; H. Bridge wall
A Watt steam engine. James Watt transformed the steam engine from a reciprocating motion that was used for pumping to a rotating motion suited to industrial applications. Watt and others significantly improved the efficiency of the steam engine.
Newcomen's steam-powered atmospheric engine was the first practical piston steam engine. Subsequent steam engines were to power the Industrial Revolution.
Maudslay's famous early screw-cutting lathes of circa 1797 and 1800
The Middletown milling machine of c. 1818, associated with Robert Johnson and Simeon North
The Thames Tunnel (opened 1843).
Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel.
The Crystal Palace housed the Great Exhibition of 1851
The Bridgewater Canal, famous because of its commercial success, crossing the Manchester Ship Canal, one of the last canals to be built.
Construction of the first macadam road in the United States (1823). In the foreground, workers are breaking stones "so as not to exceed 6 ounces in weight or to pass a two-inch ring".
Painting depicting the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830, the first inter-city railway in the world and which spawned Railway Mania due to its success.
Wedgwood tea and coffee service
Winchester High Street, 1853. The number of High Streets (the primary street for retail in Britain) in towns and cities rapidly grew in the 18th century.
The Black Country in England, west of Birmingham
Manchester, England ("Cottonopolis"), pictured in 1840, showing the mass of factory chimneys
A young "drawer" pulling a coal tub along a mine gallery. In Britain, laws passed in 1842 and 1844 improved mine working conditions.
Luddites smashing a power loom in 1812
Levels of air pollution rose during the Industrial Revolution, sparking the first modern environmental laws to be passed in the mid-19th century.
Slater's Mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
Sächsische Maschinenfabrik in Chemnitz, Germany, 1868
Sir Henry Bessemer's Bessemer converter, the most important technique for making steel from the 1850s to the 1950s. Located in Sheffield (Steel City)
Regional GDP per capita changed very little for most of human history before the Industrial Revolution.
Interior of the London Coal Exchange, c. 1808.
European 17th-century colonial expansion, international trade, and creation of financial markets produced a new legal and financial environment, one which supported and enabled 18th-century industrial growth.
As the Industrial Revolution developed British manufactured output surged ahead of other economies.
William Bell Scott Iron and Coal, 1855–60
William and Mary Presenting the Cap of Liberty to Europe, 1716, Sir James Thornhill. Enthroned in heaven with the Virtues behind them are the royals William III and Mary II who had taken the throne after the Glorious Revolution and signed the English Bill of Rights of 1689. William tramples on arbitrary power and hands the red cap of liberty to Europe where, unlike Britain, absolute monarchy stayed the normal form of power execution. Below William is the French king Louis XIV.
A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery by Joseph Wright of Derby (c. 1766). Informal philosophical societies spread scientific advances
A primitive lifestyle living outside the Industrial Revolution
A dog forced to eat trash due to pollution, the Industrial Revolution has forced animals into harsh environments most are unable to survive in, leading to starvation and eventual extinction

Parts of India, China, Central America, South America, and the Middle East have a long history of hand manufacturing cotton textiles, which became a major industry sometime after 1000 AD. In tropical and subtropical regions where it was grown, most was grown by small farmers alongside their food crops and was spun and woven in households, largely for domestic consumption.

Spinning mills in Ancoats, Manchester, England – representation of a mill-dominated townscape

Cotton mill

6 links

Spinning mills in Ancoats, Manchester, England – representation of a mill-dominated townscape
Lancashire cotton mill, 1914
Marvel's Mill in Northampton pictured in 1746 – the earliest known pictorial representation of a cotton mill.
Richard Arkwright's first 1771 Cromford Mill in Derbyshire, with three of its original five storeys remaining
Old Mill, built as a steam-powered mill in Ancoats in 1798, is the oldest surviving cotton mill in Manchester
Slater's Mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, built in 1790
McConnel & Company mills, about 1820
William Fairbairn's Lancashire boiler
Central office and warehouse block, Houldsworth Mill, Reddish
Bibb Company Mill No. 2, Oglethorpe Street, circa 1877, Macon, Ga.
Adams & Bazemore Cotton Warehouse in Macon, Georgia 1877
Broadstone Mill, in Reddish, was a large double mill built in 1906.
Elk Mill, on the Chadderton-Royton boundary, in Greater Manchester, England
The office building of former cotton mill in Lapinniemi, Tampere, Finland
Boulton and Watt engine 1784
A weaving shed, showing how all the looms were powered from overhead shafts
Minerva mill (1895)
Interior of Magnolia Cotton Mills spinning room
Some of the spinners in a cotton mill, Alabama, 1910
A little spinner in the Mollahan Mills, Newberry, South Carolina. She was tending her 'sides' like a veteran, but after I took the photo, the overseer came up and said in an apologetic tone that was pathetic, 'She just happened in.' Then a moment later he repeated the information. The mills appear to be full of youngsters that 'just happened in,' or 'are helping sister.' December 3, 1908. Witness Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina"
Cotton mill workers in Cherryville, North Carolina, 1908. Periodic labour shortages led to the hiring of child labour in the United States and other countries. Had black workers been allowed in the cotton mills of the American South at this time, young workers would not have been necessary.
Print Works c. 1906 at the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, Manchester, New Hampshire

A cotton mill is a building that houses spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution in the development of the factory system.

Balls of yarn

Yarn

5 links

Long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking.

Long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking.

Balls of yarn
Balls of yarn
Cotton being slubbed
A fully restored Derby Doubler, winding a sliver lap ready for finisher carding at Quarry Bank Mill in the UK.
A Spinning Jenny, spinning machine which was significant in the beginning of the Industrial Revolution
S- and Z-twist yarn
Yarn comes in many colors
A comparison of yarn weights (thicknesses): the top skein is aran weight, suitable for knitting a thick sweater or hat. The manufacturer's recommended knitting gauge appears on the label: 5 to 7 stitches per inch using size 4.5 to 5.1 mm needles. The bottom skein is sock weight, specifically for knitting socks. Recommended gauge: 8 to 10 stitches per inch, using size 3.6 to 4.2 mm needles.
Spool of all purpose sewing thread, closeup shows texture of 2-ply, Z-twist, mercerized cotton with polyester core.
Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum.
Woolen Shawl
Woolen shawl under microscope
Cloth Pencil Box
Cloth Pencil Box under microscope
Jeans
Jeans under microscope
Sweatshirt
Sweatshirt under microscope

The most common plant fiber is cotton, which is typically spun into fine yarn for mechanical weaving or knitting into cloth.

A model of a 19th-century cotton gin on display at the Eli Whitney Museum in Hamden, Connecticut

Cotton gin

4 links

A model of a 19th-century cotton gin on display at the Eli Whitney Museum in Hamden, Connecticut
"The First Cotton Gin", an engraving from Harper's Magazine, 1869. This carving depicts a roller gin being used by enslaved Africans, which preceded Eli Whitney's invention.
Eli Whitney's original cotton gin patent, dated March 14, 1794
The diesel-powered gin in Burton, Texas is one of the oldest in the United States that still functions.
Cotton gin at Jarrell Plantation
An 1896 advertisement for the Lummus cotton gin
Diagram of a modern cotton gin plant, displaying numerous stages of production
Modern cotton gins

A cotton gin—meaning "cotton engine"—is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation.

Gossypium

4 links

Cotton field in Sukhumi Botanical Garden, photo circa 1912
Cotton field in Greece
A Gossypium hirsutum flower, lateral view, growing in Barcelona
The same G. hirsutum plant with the opening capsule
G. hirsutum flower with bumblebee pollinator, Hemingway, South Carolina
G. tomentosum boll
Integrated pest management bollworm trap at a cotton field in Manning, South Carolina
Natural biocontrol: predatory Polistes wasp looking for bollworms or other caterpillars on cotton plant in Hemingway, South Carolina
Gossypium boll ready for harvest, South Carolina
Gossypium Sp. Brun - MHNT

Gossypium is a genus of flowering plants in the tribe Gossypieae of the mallow family, Malvaceae, from which cotton is harvested.

A bundle of optical fibers

Fiber

3 links

Natural or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.

Natural or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.

A bundle of optical fibers

Vegetable fibers are generally based on arrangements of cellulose, often with lignin: examples include cotton, hemp, jute, flax, abaca, piña, ramie, sisal, bagasse, and banana. Plant fibers are employed in the manufacture of paper and textile (cloth), and dietary fiber is an important component of human nutrition.

220x220px

Rayon

6 links

Semi-synthetic fiber, made from natural sources of regenerated cellulose, such as wood and related agricultural products.

Semi-synthetic fiber, made from natural sources of regenerated cellulose, such as wood and related agricultural products.

220x220px
Aqueous solution of Schweizer's reagent or cuoxam
A device for spinning viscose rayon dating from 1901
Lyocell shirt
Simplified view of the xanthation of cellulose.
A sample of rayon from a skirt photographed with a macro lens.
Another skirt with a different texture.
A blouse with a texture similar to the second.

Some imitate the feel and texture of natural fibers such as silk, wool, cotton, and linen.

Gossypium barbadense

2 links

Botanical illustration by Franz Eugen Köhler, 1897

Gossypium barbadense (gos-SIP-pee-um bar-ba-DEN-see) is one of several species of cotton.

The arrangement of cellulose and other polysaccharides in a plant cell wall.

Cellulose

2 links

Organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β linked D -glucose units.

Organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β linked D -glucose units.

The arrangement of cellulose and other polysaccharides in a plant cell wall.
Cellulose under a microscope.
A triple strand of cellulose showing the hydrogen bonds (cyan lines) between glucose strands
Cotton fibres represent the purest natural form of cellulose, containing more than 90% of this polysaccharide.
A strand of cellulose (conformation Iα), showing the hydrogen bonds (dashed) within and between cellulose molecules.

The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.