A report on Cough

A young boy coughing due to pertussis causing whooping cough.
Coughing is viewed as a public health issue.

Sudden expulsion of air through the large breathing passages that can help clear them of fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.

- Cough
A young boy coughing due to pertussis causing whooping cough.

28 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Chest X-ray of a pneumonia caused by influenza and Haemophilus influenzae, with patchy consolidations, mainly in the right upper lobe (arrow)

Pneumonia

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Inflammatory condition of the lung primarily affecting the small air sacs known as alveoli.

Inflammatory condition of the lung primarily affecting the small air sacs known as alveoli.

Chest X-ray of a pneumonia caused by influenza and Haemophilus influenzae, with patchy consolidations, mainly in the right upper lobe (arrow)
Main symptoms of infectious pneumonia
The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common cause of pneumonia, imaged by an electron microscope
Cavitating pneumonia due to MRSA as seen on a CT scan
A chest x-ray of a patient with severe viral pneumonia due to SARS
Pneumonia fills the lung's alveoli with fluid, hindering oxygenation. The alveolus on the left is normal, whereas the one on the right is full of fluid from pneumonia.
A chest X-ray showing a very prominent wedge-shaped area of airspace consolidation in the right lung characteristic of acute bacterial lobar pneumonia
CT of the chest demonstrating right-sided pneumonia (left side of the image)
A pleural effusion: as seen on chest X-ray. The A arrow indicates fluid layering in the right chest. The B arrow indicates the width of the right lung. The volume of the lung is reduced because of the collection of fluid around the lung.
Deaths from lower respiratory infections per million persons in 2012
WPA poster, 1936/1937
Pneumonia seen by ultrasound
Right middle lobe pneumonia in a child as seen on plain X-ray
Disability-adjusted life year for lower respiratory infections per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 
no data
less than 100
100–700
700–1,400
1,400–2,100
2,100–2,800
2,800–3,500
3,500–4,200
4,200–4,900
4,900–5,600
5,600–6,300
6,300–7,000
more than 7,000

Symptoms typically include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.

A piece of phlegm

Phlegm

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Mucus produced by the respiratory system, excluding that produced by the nasal passages.

Mucus produced by the respiratory system, excluding that produced by the nasal passages.

A piece of phlegm

It often refers to respiratory mucus expelled by coughing, otherwise known as sputum.

Figure A shows the location of the lungs and bronchial tubes. Figure B is an enlarged view of a normal bronchial tube. Figure C is an enlarged view of a bronchial tube with bronchitis.

Bronchitis

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Figure A shows the location of the lungs and bronchial tubes. Figure B is an enlarged view of a normal bronchial tube. Figure C is an enlarged view of a bronchial tube with bronchitis.
Bronchitis
Plastic bronchitis bronchial casts

Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs that causes coughing.

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe

Lung

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and most animals, some fish and some snails.

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and most animals, some fish and some snails.

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe
Cross-sectional detail of the lung
Thick elastic fibres from the visceral pleura (outer lining) of lung
TEM image of collagen fibres in a cross sectional slice of mammalian lung tissue.
A lobule of the lung enclosed in septa and supplied by a terminal bronchiole that branches into the respiratory bronchioles. Each respiratory bronchiole supplies the alveoli held in each acinus accompanied by a pulmonary artery branch.
Alveoli and their capillary networks.
3D Medical illustration showing different terminating ends of bronchioles.
The lungs as main part of respiratory tract
3D rendering of a high-resolution CT scan of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed in order to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.
Lungs during development, showing the early branching of the primitive bronchial buds
The effect of the respiratory muscles in expanding the rib cage.
Tissue death of the lung due to a pulmonary embolism
3D still image of constricted airways as in bronchial asthma.
Lung tissue affected by emphysema using H&E stain.
On inhalation, air travels to air sacs near the back of a bird. The air then passes through the lungs to air sacs near the front of the bird, from where the air is exhaled.
The cross-current respiratory gas exchanger in the lungs of birds. Air is forced from the air sacs unidirectionally (from left to right in the diagram) through the parabronchi. The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it in the diagram). Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue.
The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) retains its larval form with gills into adulthood
Book lungs of spider (shown in pink)
thumb|Chest CT (axial lung window)
thumb|Chest CT (coronal lung window)

As part of a physical examination in response to respiratory symptoms of shortness of breath, and cough, a lung examination may be carried out.

Figure A shows the location of the lungs and bronchial tubes. Figure B is an enlarged view of a normal bronchial tube. Figure C is an enlarged view of a bronchial tube with bronchitis.

Acute bronchitis

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Short-term bronchitis – inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs.

Short-term bronchitis – inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs.

Figure A shows the location of the lungs and bronchial tubes. Figure B is an enlarged view of a normal bronchial tube. Figure C is an enlarged view of a bronchial tube with bronchitis.
Mild peribronchial cuffing as seen in viral bronchitis

The most common symptom is a cough.

A representation of the molecular surface of one variant of human rhinovirus

Common cold

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Viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the respiratory mucosa of the nose, throat, sinuses, and larynx.

Viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the respiratory mucosa of the nose, throat, sinuses, and larynx.

A representation of the molecular surface of one variant of human rhinovirus
Woman with symptoms of the common cold
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses known for causing the common cold. They have a halo or crown-like (corona) appearance when viewed under an electron microscope.
The common cold is a disease of the upper respiratory tract.
Poster from 1937 encouraging citizens to "consult your physician" for treatment of the common cold
A British poster from World War II describing the cost of the common cold

These may include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, headache, and fever.

Peak flow meters are used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate, important in both monitoring and diagnosing asthma.

Asthma

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Long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

Long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

Peak flow meters are used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate, important in both monitoring and diagnosing asthma.
Salbutamol metered dose inhaler commonly used to treat asthma attacks.
Fluticasone propionate metered dose inhaler commonly used for long-term control.
Rates of asthma in 2017
Ebers Papyrus detailing treatment of asthma
1907 advertisement for Grimault's Indian Cigarettes, promoted as a means of relieving asthma. They contained belladonna and cannabis.
Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. Figure B shows a cross-section of a normal airway. Figure C shows a cross-section of an airway during asthma symptoms.
alt=A tissue cross section of the airway showing a stained pink wall and an inside full of white mucous|Obstruction of the lumen of a bronchiole by mucoid exudate, goblet cell metaplasia, and epithelial basement membrane thickening in a person with asthma.
Diagram of asthma
Asthma deaths per million persons in 2012{{refbegin|3}}{{legend|#ffff20|0–10}}{{legend|#ffe820|11–13}}{{legend|#ffd820|14–17}}{{legend|#ffc020|18–23}}{{legend|#ffa020|24–32}}{{legend|#ff9a20|33–43}}{{legend|#f08015|44–50}}{{legend|#e06815|51–66}}{{legend|#d85010|67–95}}{{legend|#d02010|96–251}}{{refend}}
alt=A map of the world with Europe shaded yellow, most of North and South America orange and Southern Africa a dark red|Disability-adjusted life year for asthma per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index.html |title=WHO Disease and injury country estimates |year=2009 |work=World Health Organization |access-date=November 11, 2009| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091111101009/http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index.html|archive-date= 11 November 2009 | url-status= live}}</ref>{{refbegin|3}}{{legend|#b3b3b3|no data}}{{legend|#ffff65|0-100}}{{legend|#fff200|100–150}}{{legend|#ffdc00|150–200}}{{legend|#ffc600|200–250}}{{legend|#ffb000|250–300}}{{legend|#ff9a00|300–350}}{{legend|#ff8400|350–400}}{{legend|#ff6e00|400–450}}{{legend|#ff5800|450–500}}{{legend|#ff4200|500–550}}{{legend|#ff2c00|550–600}}{{legend|#cb0000|>600}}{{refend}}

Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

Store brand dextromethorphan cough syrup

Dextromethorphan

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Store brand dextromethorphan cough syrup
Main metabolic pathways of dextromethorphan degradation, which are catalyzed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6) and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase (UGT).
Racemate separation for synthesis of Dextromethorphan
Dextromethorphan gel capsules

Dextromethorphan is a medication most often used as a cough suppressant in over-the-counter cold and cough medicines.

Chest X-ray of a person with advanced tuberculosis: Infection in both lungs is marked by white arrow-heads, and the formation of a cavity is marked by black arrows.

Tuberculosis

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Infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria.

Infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria.

Chest X-ray of a person with advanced tuberculosis: Infection in both lungs is marked by white arrow-heads, and the formation of a cavity is marked by black arrows.
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The main symptoms of variants and stages of tuberculosis are given, with many symptoms overlapping with other variants, while others are more (but not entirely) specific for certain variants. Multiple variants may be present simultaneously.
Scanning electron micrograph of M. tuberculosis
Public health campaigns in the 1920s tried to halt the spread of TB.
Robert Carswell's illustration of tubercle
Microscopy of tuberculous epididymitis. H&E stain
M. tuberculosis (stained red) in sputum
Mantoux tuberculin skin test
Tuberculosis public health campaign in Ireland, c. 1905
Tuberculosis phototherapy treatment on 3 March 1934, in Kuopio, Finland
Egyptian mummy in the British Museum – tubercular decay has been found in the spine.
Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacillus.
Painting The Sick Child by Edvard Munch, 1885–86, depicts the illness of his sister Sophie, who died of tuberculosis when Edvard was 14; his mother too died of the disease.
Number of new cases of tuberculosis per 100,000 people in 2016.<ref>{{cite web |title=Tuberculosis incidence (per 100,000 people) |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/incidence-of-tuberculosis-sdgs |website=Our World in Data |access-date=7 March 2020 |archive-date=26 September 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190926041419/https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/incidence-of-tuberculosis-sdgs |url-status=live }}</ref>
Tuberculosis deaths per million persons in 2012
Tuberculosis deaths by region, 1990 to 2017.<ref>{{cite web |title=Tuberculosis deaths by region |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/tuberculosis-deaths-region |website=Our World in Data |access-date=7 March 2020 |archive-date=8 May 2020 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200508204644/https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/tuberculosis-deaths-region |url-status=live }}</ref>

Typical symptoms of active TB are chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

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Chronic condition in which stomach contents and acid rise up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications.

Chronic condition in which stomach contents and acid rise up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications.

X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux
Frontal view of severe tooth erosion in GERD.
Severe tooth erosion in GERD.
A comparison of a healthy condition to GERD
Endoscopic image of peptic stricture, or narrowing of the esophagus near the junction with the stomach: This is a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and can be a cause of dysphagia or difficulty swallowing.

Less common symptoms include pain with swallowing/sore throat, increased salivation (also known as water brash), nausea, chest pain, coughing, and globus sensation.