14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis
A young boy coughing due to pertussis causing whooping cough.
Vomiting
Coughing is viewed as a public health issue.
Partially digested food, with man-sized glove for scale
A drunk man vomiting, while a young slave is holding his forehead. Brygos Painter, 500–470 BC
Special bags are often supplied on boats for sick passengers to vomit into.

Under normal circumstances the gag reflex and coughing prevent this from occurring; however, these protective reflexes are compromised in persons who are under the influence of certain substances (including alcohol) or even mildly anesthetized.

- Vomiting

Acute complications include cough syncope (fainting spells due to decreased blood flow to the brain when coughs are prolonged and forceful), insomnia, cough-induced vomiting, subconjunctival hemorrhage or "red eye", coughing defecation and in women with a prolapsed uterus, cough urination.

- Cough
14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis

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X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Chronic condition in which stomach contents and acid rise up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications.

Chronic condition in which stomach contents and acid rise up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications.

X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux
Frontal view of severe tooth erosion in GERD.
Severe tooth erosion in GERD.
A comparison of a healthy condition to GERD
Endoscopic image of peptic stricture, or narrowing of the esophagus near the junction with the stomach: This is a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and can be a cause of dysphagia or difficulty swallowing.

Less common symptoms include pain with swallowing/sore throat, increased salivation (also known as water brash), nausea, chest pain, coughing, and globus sensation.

GERD in children may cause repeated vomiting, effortless spitting up, coughing, and other respiratory problems, such as wheezing.