Council Bluffs, Iowa

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Courthouse, Council Bluffs, Iowa 1915
Pierre-Jean De Smet's map of the Council Bluffs area, 1839. The area labeled Caldwell's Camp was a Potawatomi village led by Sauganash, near the site of Kanesville, later called Council Bluffs.
Lincoln Memorial at Council Bluffs, marking where President Abraham Lincoln was said to have selected this site as the eastern terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad.
The Grenville M. Dodge House, built in 1869 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places
The population of Council Bluffs, Iowa from US census data
Downtown Council Bluffs looking west along East Broadway
Bayliss Park in downtown Council Bluffs
1916 panoramic photograph of West Broadway between 1st Street on the right to the Council Bluffs Post Office and Federal Building at 6th Street on the left when this was part of the Lincoln Highway.
Golden spike dedicated in 1939 during the world premiere of Union Pacific at milepost 0.0 of the transcontinental railroad
Fishermen on the Missouri River in Council Bluffs, facing the Union Pacific Bridge
The Ruth Anne Dodge Memorial
Union Pacific Railroad Museum in the former Carnegie Library in downtown Council Bluffs

City in and the county seat of Pottawattamie County, Iowa, United States.

- Council Bluffs, Iowa

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Soldiers of the Mormon Battalion honored at Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial, Los Angeles, California

Mormon Battalion

The only religious unit in United States military history in federal service, recruited solely from one religious body and having a religious title as the unit designation.

The only religious unit in United States military history in federal service, recruited solely from one religious body and having a religious title as the unit designation.

Soldiers of the Mormon Battalion honored at Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial, Los Angeles, California
Alleged to be the Mormon Battalion Flag but likely was not. This flag belonged to the Utah-period Nauvoo Legion
"Mormon Battalion Monument" by Edward J. Fraughton, Presidio Park, San Diego, California
Revised map of Mormon Battalion routes with all detachment routes shown.
Philip St. George Cooke
A later-19th-century painting depicting the Mormon Battalion reaching the Gila River in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona
The San Diego Mormon Battalion Historic Site
Mormon Battalion memorial, Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery

During its service, the battalion made a grueling march of nearly 2,100 miles from Council Bluffs, Iowa, to San Diego, California.

Detail of (reconstructed) west rampart barracks

Fort Atkinson (Nebraska)

The first United States Army post to be established west of the Missouri River in the unorganized region of the Louisiana Purchase of the United States.

The first United States Army post to be established west of the Missouri River in the unorganized region of the Louisiana Purchase of the United States.

Detail of (reconstructed) west rampart barracks

The site that would become Fort Atkinson was the Council Bluff (not to be confused with Council Bluffs, Iowa, 20 miles to the south), which was the site of an 1804 council between the Lewis and Clark Expedition and members of the Oto and Missouria Native American tribes.

Omaha–Council Bluffs metropolitan area

Urbanized region in Nebraska and Iowa in the American Midwest, centered on the city of Omaha, Nebraska.

Urbanized region in Nebraska and Iowa in the American Midwest, centered on the city of Omaha, Nebraska.

View from space of Omaha and Council Bluffs
The Downtown Omaha skyline from North Downtown.

Council Bluffs, Iowa - 62,799 inhabitants (2020)

Rock Island locomotive #627, circa 1880

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad

American Class I railroad.

American Class I railroad.

Rock Island locomotive #627, circa 1880
The former Rock Island Depot at Chillicothe, Illinois, now a railroad museum
Aerotrain advertisement.
A 1907 advertisement for travel between Chicago and the Pacific Coast
Rock Island E8 #652 with E6 #630 at Midland Railway, Baldwin City, KS.
The Golden State at 99th Street in Washington Heights on the Rock Island mainline in April 1965
Iowa City Depot, once part of the Rock Island system
One of the last passenger timetables issued by the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad: The Rock Island did not join Amtrak on May 1, 1971, and continued to operate its own passenger service until 1978.
The outdoor passenger concourse and platforms of LaSalle Street Station as built and operated by Metra. The trains shown are commuter runs to Blue Island and Joliet, Illinois.
The Rock Island's logo from 1974 to 1980.
In 1974, the road adopted a new color scheme and rebranded itself as "The Rock." #4340 was among several EMD GP38-2 units acquired by the Missouri Pacific Railroad when the Rock Island shut down in 1980, and became MoPac #2278.
Iowa Interstate's ES44AC #513 in "Rock Island" heritage colors rolls through the "Y" at Bureau Junction, IL, hauling coal from Peoria, IL, to Cedar Rapids, IA
Iowa Northern Railway engine 678 at Coralville, Iowa, painted in Rock Island livery as a memorial

In Iowa, the C&RI's incorporators created (on February 5, 1853) the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad Company (M&M), to run from Davenport to Council Bluffs, and on November 20, 1855, the first train to operate in Iowa steamed from Davenport to Muscatine.

Iowa

State in the Midwestern region of the United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west.

State in the Midwestern region of the United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west.

Excavation of the 3,800-year-old Edgewater Park Site
Iowa in 1718 with the modern state area highlighted
Iowa Territorial Seal
Bellevue along the Mississippi, 1848
Topography of Iowa, with counties and major streams
DeSoto Lake at DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge
Landforms of Iowa, based on Prior (1991)
Köppen climate types of Iowa, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Iowa annual rainfall, in inches
Percent population changes by counties in Iowa, 2000–2009. Dark green counties have gains of more than 5%.
Iowa population density map
Population age comparison between rural Pocahontas County and urban Polk County, illustrating the flight of young adults (red) to urban centers in Iowa
Amana Colonies were founded by German Pietists.
The Christina Reiman Butterfly Wing at Iowa State University, Ames
Skyline of Des Moines, Iowa's capital and largest city
Old Capitol, Iowa City
Inside the Davenport Skybridge
Brucemore, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Historic Fourth Street, Sioux City
Loess Hills east of Mondamin
The Iowa Great Lakes located primarily in Dickinson County, in the northwestern section of Iowa near the Minnesota border.
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Ruins of historic Fort Atkinson
Wood-heated floating sauna on the farm pond
Iowa gross state products by industry, 2009
Harvesting corn in Jones County
Farm in rural Northwest Iowa
Central Iowa cornfield and dairy in June
Mural in Mt. Ayr Post Office, "The Corn Parade" by Orr C. Fischer, commissioned as part of the New Deal
Ethanol plant under construction in Butler County
Wind turbines near Williams
Palmer Chiropractic College in Davenport is the first school of chiropractic in the world.
Iowa's major interstates, larger cities, and counties
The Iowa State Capitol in Des Moines, completed in 1886, is the only state capitol in the United States to feature five domes, a central golden dome surrounded by four smaller ones. It houses the Iowa General Assembly, comprising the Iowa House of Representatives and Iowa Senate.
The Iowa Supreme Court, across from the capitol, is the state's highest court.
Samuel J. Kirkwood, founder of the Iowa Republican Party, abolitionist, and Iowa's Civil War Governor
The Union Block building, Mount Pleasant, scene of early civil rights and women's rights activities
Schaeffer Hall (University of Iowa, Iowa City)
Riverside's "favorite son"
South End Zone of Iowa State University's Jack Trice Stadium in Ames, IA.
Modern Woodmen Park is home to the Quad Cities baseball team.
President Herbert Hoover
Vice President Henry Wallace

Western Iowa around modern Council Bluffs was used as an Indian Reservation for members of the Council of Three Fires.

The ceremony for the driving of the
"Last Spike" at Promontory Summit, Utah,
May 10, 1869

First transcontinental railroad

The ceremony for the driving of the
"Last Spike" at Promontory Summit, Utah,
May 10, 1869
Title page of Dr. Hartwell Carver's 1847 Pacific Railroad proposal to Congress from Lake Michigan to the West Coast
The official poster announcing the Pacific Railroad's grand opening
Leland Stanford and the officers of the CPRR in 1870
Theodore Judah, architect of the transcontinental railroad and first chief engineer of the Central Pacific
Lewis M. Clement, Chief Assistant Engineer and Superintendent of Track
Leland Stanford's official gubernatorial portrait
Dr. Thomas C. Durant
Pacific Railroad Bond, City and County of San Francisco, 1865
Profile of the Pacific Railroad from Council Bluffs/Omaha to San Francisco. Harper's Weekly December 7, 1867
First Day Cover for the 75th Anniversary of the Driving of the Last Spike (May 10, 1944)
Route of the first American transcontinental railroad from Sacramento, California, to Council Bluffs, Iowa. Other railroads connected at Council Bluffs to cities throughout the East and Midwest.
Dale Creek Bridge
Central Pacific Railroad at Cape Horn c. 1880
1864 advertisement for the opening of the Dutch Flat Wagon Road
The CPRR grade at Donner Summit as it appeared in 1869 and 2003
The vertical central shaft of the CPRR "Summit Tunnel" (Tunnel #6) at Donner Summit which allowed drilling and excavation to be carried out on four faces at once
The Summit Tunnel at Donner Summit, West Portal (Composite image with the tracks removed in 1993 digitally restored)
CPRR-issued ticket for passage from Reno to Virginia City, NV on the V&TRR, 1878
The Jupiter, which carried Leland Stanford (one of the "Big Four" owners of the Central Pacific) and other railway officials to the Last Spike Ceremony
Chinese railroad workers greet a train on a snowy day.
CPRR Tunnel #3 near Cisco, California (MP 180.1) opened in 1866 and remains in daily use today.
Example of hand-drilled granite from within Tunnel #6, the "Summit Tunnel"
CPRR snow galleries allowed construction to continue in heavy snow (1868)
Grenville M. Dodge wearing a major general's uniform
The Last Spike by Thomas Hill (1881)
Golden spike, one of four ceremonial spikes driven at the completion
Display ads for the CPRR and UPRR the week the rails were joined on May 10, 1869
UPRR & CPRR "Great American Over-Land Route" Timetable cover 1881
Frontispiece of Crofutt's Great Trans-Continental Tourist's Guide, 1870
Oakes Ames
Poster for the film Union Pacific, released in May 1939
Transcontinental Railroad 75th Anniversary Issue stamp of 1944

North America's first transcontinental railroad (known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a 1,911 mi continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay.

Population of Pottawattamie County from US census data

Pottawattamie County, Iowa

County located in the U.S. state of Iowa.

County located in the U.S. state of Iowa.

Population of Pottawattamie County from US census data
2000 Census Age Pyramid for Pottawattamie County

The county seat is Council Bluffs.

Route of the Mormon pioneers from Nauvoo to Great Salt Lake

Mormon Trail

1,300 mi long route from Illinois to Utah that members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints traveled for 3 months.

1,300 mi long route from Illinois to Utah that members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints traveled for 3 months.

Route of the Mormon pioneers from Nauvoo to Great Salt Lake
Mormon Battalion Trail Marker in Oatman Flats, Dateland, Arizona
Historic Information along the National Historic Trail
1859 map of route from Sioux City, Iowa, through Nebraska, to gold fields of Wyoming, following old Mormon trails.
Map of Mormon Trail
Daguerreotype of Nauvoo as it appeared at the time of the Mormon exodus.
Independence Rock, a site along the Mormon Trail.
Devil's Gate, a gorge on the Sweetwater River.
South Pass
Echo Canyon

From Council Bluffs, Iowa to Fort Bridger in Wyoming, the trail follows much the same route as the Oregon Trail and the California Trail; these trails are collectively known as the Emigrant Trail.

Omaha, Nebraska

Largest city in the U.S. state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.

Largest city in the U.S. state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.

Logan Fontenelle, an interpreter for the Omaha Tribe when it ceded the land that became the city of Omaha to the U.S. government
Nebraska Territory, $1 City of Omaha 1857 uniface banknote. The note is signed by Jesse Lowe, in his function as first Mayor of Omaha City. It was issued as scrip in 1857 to help fund the erection of the Territorial capitol building.
The Hotel Fontenelle, formerly in downtown Omaha.
Kiewit Tower, the location of Berkshire Hathaway's corporate offices
One First National Center has been the tallest building in Omaha since 2002.
Bob Kerrey Pedestrian Bridge
Downtown - lime, Midtown - blue-gray, North - red, South - pink, West - lavender
View from above West Omaha
The Joslyn Castle is home to a nonprofit environmental organization.
The Saint Cecilia Cathedral against an Omaha summer sunset.
Map of racial distribution in Omaha, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:
View of 24th and Lake Streets in North Omaha, site of many notable events in Omaha's African Americans community
The Old Market in Downtown Omaha is one of the city's premier destinations.
Office buildings in downtown Omaha
Joslyn Art Museum
Desert Dome at the Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium
CHI Health Center
TD Ameritrade Park Omaha
The City Building in Downtown Omaha
The historic Omaha Star building along North 24th Street, listed on the National Register of Historic Places
First National Bank Tower in Downtown Omaha is the tallest building in the state.
Ak-Sar-Ben Bridge toll booth in 1938
Interstate 480 leaving Omaha
Omaha's Eppley Airfield in East Omaha

Omaha's pioneer period began in 1854, when the city was founded by speculators from neighboring Council Bluffs, Iowa.

Transcontinental railroads in and near the United States by 1887

Transcontinental railroad

Contiguous railroad trackage, that crosses a continental land mass and has terminals at different oceans or continental borders.

Contiguous railroad trackage, that crosses a continental land mass and has terminals at different oceans or continental borders.

Transcontinental railroads in and near the United States by 1887
The ceremony for the driving of the "Last Spike," the joining of the tracks of the CPRR and UPRR grades at Promontory Summit, Utah, on May 10, 1869, Andrew J. Russell's "East and West Shaking Hands at Laying of Last Rail." May 10, 1869.
Lord Strathcona driving the "Last Spike" of Canada's first transcontinental railroad, the Canadian Pacific Railway, in 1885
Current Panama Canal Railway line (interactive version)
Guatemala railway (defunct) (interactive version)
Costa Rica railway network (interactive version)

The rails of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" were joined on May 10, 1869, with the ceremonial driving of the "Last Spike" at Promontory Summit, Utah, after track was laid over a 1,756 mi gap between Sacramento and Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa in six years by the Union Pacific Railroad and Central Pacific Railroad. Although through train service was in operation as of that date, the road was not deemed to have been officially "completed" until November 6, 1869. (A physical connection between Omaha, Nebraska, and the statutory Eastern terminus of the Pacific road at Council Bluffs, Iowa, located immediately across the Missouri River was also not finally established until the opening of UPRR railroad bridge across the river on March 25, 1873, prior to which transfers were made by ferry operated by the Council Bluffs & Nebraska Ferry Company. )