A report on Counter-Reformation

A copy of the Sixtine Vulgate, the Latin edition of the Catholic Bible printed in 1590 after many of the Council of Trent's reforms had begun to take place in Catholic worship
Confutatio Augustana (left) and Confessio Augustana (right) being presented to Charles V
A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving
This 1711 illustration for the Index Librorum Prohibitorum depicts the Holy Ghost supplying the book burning fire.
Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.
Peter Paul Rubens was the great Flemish artist of the Counter-Reformation. He painted Adoration of the Magi in 1624.
Matanzas Inlet, Florida, where the survivors were killed
Peak of the Reformation & beginning of the Counter-Reformation (1545–1620)
End of the Reformation & Counter-Reformation (1648)
Johann Michael Rottmayr (1729): The Catholic faith defeats Protestant heresies; part of a fresco inside Karlskirche in Vienna

The period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revolution.

- Counter-Reformation

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St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world

Catholic Church

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Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world
The first use of the term "Catholic Church" (literally meaning "universal church") was by the church father Saint Ignatius of Antioch in his Letter to the Smyrnaeans (c. 110 AD). Ignatius of Antioch is also attributed the earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Χριστιανισμός) c. 100 AD. He died in Rome, with his relics located in the Basilica of San Clemente al Laterano.
This fresco (1481–82) by Pietro Perugino in the Sistine Chapel shows Jesus giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter.
The Last Supper, a late 1490s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci, depicting the last supper of Jesus and his twelve apostles on the eve of his crucifixion. Most apostles are buried in Rome, including Saint Peter.
Jesus' commission to Saint Peter
19th-century drawing by Henry William Brewer of Old Saint Peter's Basilica, originally built in 318 by Emperor Constantine
Chartres Cathedral, completed 1220
The Renaissance period was a golden age for Catholic art. Pictured: the Sistine Chapel ceiling painted by Michelangelo
Ruins of the Jesuit Reduction at São Miguel das Missões in Brazil
While, since the 1960s, Pope Pius XII has been accused of not having done enough to shelter Jews from the Holocaust, his defenders claim he secretly encouraged individual Catholic resistance groups, such as that led by priest Heinrich Maier. Maier helped the allies fight against the V-2, which was produced by concentration camp prisoners.
Members of the Canadian Royal 22e Regiment in audience with Pope Pius XII, following the Liberation of Rome in 1944 during World War II
Bishops listen during the Second Vatican Council
Pope John Paul II was credited as a major influence to the end of the Cold War and the fall of communism. Here with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his wife, Nancy, in 1982.
Francis is the 266th and current pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He was elected in the 2013 papal conclave.
C. 1210 manuscript version of the traditional Shield of the Trinity theological diagram
The Blessed Virgin Mary is highly regarded in the Catholic Church, proclaiming her as Mother of God, free from original sin and an intercessor.
Mass at the Grotto at Lourdes, France. The chalice is displayed to the people immediately after the consecration of the wine.
Baptism of Augustine of Hippo as represented in a sculptural group in Troyes Cathedral (1549), France
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist at the canonisation of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on 11 May 2007
A Catholic believer prays in a church in Mexico
The Seven Sacraments Altarpiece triptych painting of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick) with oil being administered by a priest during last rites. Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1445.
Priests lay their hands on the ordinands during the rite of ordination.
Wedding mass in the Philippines
Catholic religious objects – Holy Bible, crucifix and rosary
East Syrian Rite wedding crowning celebrated by a bishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India, one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the pope and the Catholic Church.
Saint Teresa of Calcutta advocated for the sick, the poor and the needy by practicing the acts of corporal works of mercy.
Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling
Pope Paul VI issued Humanae vitae on 25 July 1968.

The Council of Trent (1545–1563) became the driving force behind the Counter-Reformation in response to the Protestant movement.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)

Reformation

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Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)
Martin Luther's 1534 Bible translated into German. Luther's translation influenced the development of the current Standard German.
Erasmus was a Catholic priest who inspired some of the Protestant reformers
Jiří Třanovský (1592–1637), the "Luther of the Slavs" who was active in Bohemia, Moravia, Poland, and Slovakia (Upper Hungary)
Huldrych Zwingli launched the Reformation in Switzerland. Portrait by Hans Asper.
John Calvin was one of the leading figures of the Reformation. His legacy remains in a variety of churches.
The seal of the Diocese of Turku (Finland) during the 16th and 17th centuries featured the finger of St Henry. The post-Reformation diocese included the relic of a pre-Reformation saint in its seal.
Henry VIII broke England's ties with the Roman Catholic Church, becoming the sole head of the English Church.
Thomas Cranmer proved essential in the development of the English Reformation.
Oliver Cromwell was a devout Puritan and military leader, who became Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
John Knox was a leading figure in the Scottish Reformation
Although a Catholic clergyman himself, Cardinal Richelieu allied France with Protestant states.
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre, painting by François Dubois
Contemporary illustration of the auto-da-fé of Valladolid, in which fourteen Protestants were burned at the stake for their faith, on 21 May 1559
Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.
Stephen Bocskay prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from imposing Catholicism on Hungarians.
A devout Catholic, Mary I of England started the first Plantations of Ireland, which, ironically, soon came to be associated with Protestantism.
Waldensian symbol Lux lucet in tenebris ("Light glows in the darkness")
Jan Łaski sought unity between various Christian Churches in the Commonwealth, and participated in the English Reformation.
Reformation in Moldova
Primož Trubar, a Lutheran reformer in Slovenia
Religious fragmentation in Central Europe at the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618).
The Reformation at its peak, superimposed on modern European borders
The Reformation & the Counter-Reformation—both at their end—and superimposed on modern European borders
Treaty of Westphalia allowed Calvinism to be freely exercised, reducing the need for Crypto-Calvinism
Katharina von Bora played a role in shaping social ethics during the Reformation.

Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the formation of the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, and also a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century.

Council of Trent, painting in the Museo del Palazzo del Buonconsiglio, Trento

Council of Trent

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The 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.

The 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.

Council of Trent, painting in the Museo del Palazzo del Buonconsiglio, Trento
Pope Paul III, convener of the Council of Trent.
The Council, depicted by Pasquale Cati (Cati da Iesi)
Andrada, a Catholic
Chemnitz, a Lutheran

Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.

Portrait of Pope Paul III by Titian (1543).

Pope Paul III

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Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.

Portrait of Pope Paul III by Titian (1543).
Pope Paul III and his Grandsons Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (left), and Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma (right), II Duke of Parma since 1547. A triple portrait by Titian, 1546
Ranuccio Farnese was made cardinal by Paul III at the age of 15.
The Farnese coat of arms or stemma on the facade of the Farnese Palace in Rome.
Pope Paul III approves the Society of Jesus, c. 1640, by Domingos da Cunha.
Portrait of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese by Raphael, 1512.
Rome, Italy. St. Peter's, tomb of Paul III. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection.

His pontificate initiated the Counter-Reformation with the Council of Trent in 1545, as well as the Wars of religion with Emperor Charles V's military campaigns against the Protestants in Germany.

St. Peter's Basilica

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Church built in the Renaissance style located in Vatican City, the papal enclave that is within the city of Rome, Italy.

Church built in the Renaissance style located in Vatican City, the papal enclave that is within the city of Rome, Italy.

View from the Tiber on Ponte Sant'Angelo and the Basilica. The iconic dome dominates the skyline of Rome.
St. Peter and the Apostles on the Facade of St. Peter's Basilica
Bishops at the Second Vatican Council in 1962
Crepuscular rays are seen in St. Peter's Basilica at certain times each day.
An early interpretation of the relative locations of the circus, and the medieval and current Basilicas of St. Peter.
One possible modern interpretation
Maarten van Heemskerck - Santa Maria della Febbre, Vatican Obelisk, Saint Peter's Basilica in construction (1532)
A conjectural view of the Old St. Peter's Basilica by H. W. Brewer, 1891
Bramante's plan
Raphael's plan
Michelangelo's plan
Bramante's dome
Sangallo's design
St. Peter's Basilica from Castel Sant'Angelo showing the dome rising behind Maderno's façade.
1506 medal by Cristoforo Foppa depicting Bramante's design, including the four flanking smaller domes
The engraving by Stefan du Pérac was published in 1569, five years after the death of Michelangelo
The dome was brought to completion by Giacomo della Porta and Fontana.
Architectural details of the central part looking upward into the dome
Michelangelo's plan extended with Maderno's nave and narthex
Maderno's façade, with the statues of Saint Peter (left) and Saint Paul (right) flanking the entrance stairs
The narthex
Maderno's nave, looking towards the chancel
The apse with St. Peter's Cathedra supported by four Doctors of the Church
The altar with Bernini's baldacchino
Bernini's Cathedra Petri and Gloria
St. Peter's Basilica and the piazza at night
One of the two fountains which form the axis of the piazza.
Evening aerial view of the piazza and facade
View of Rome from the Dome of St. Peter's Basilica
Air vents for the crypt in St. Peter's Basilica
Cardinals at Mass in Saint Peter's Basilica two days before a papal conclave, 16 April 2005.
The inauguration of Pope Francis in 2013
Silhouette of St. Peter's Basilica at sundown (view from Castel Sant'Angelo).
alt= A marble statue showing a matronly woman in a sweeping cloak supporting a cross which stands beside her and presenting a set of nails to the viewer with her left hand|Saint Helena
alt= This statue shows a Roman soldier, with a cloak furling around him, gazing upward while he supports a long spear with his right hand and throws out his other hand in amazement.|Saint Longinus
alt= This statue shows an elderly man, bare-chested, and draped, looking up despairingly as he supports a large cross, arranged diagonally.|Saint Andrew
alt= This statue shows the saint as a young woman, who, with a sweeping dramatic gesture, displays a cloth on which there is an image of the face of Jesus.|Saint Veronica
alt= A pair of bronze doors divided into sixteen panels containing reliefs depicting scenes mainly from the life of Jesus and stories that he told.|The Holy Door is opened only for great celebrations.
alt= A large memorial set in a niche. The marble figure of a kneeling pope is surrounded by allegoric marble figures, and sculptured drapery surfaced with patterned red stone.|The tomb of Alexander VII, by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1671–1678.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/Docs/seminarians4.htm|website=saintpetersbasilica.org|title=The Seminarian GuidesNorth American College, Rome|access-date=29 July 2009}}</ref>
alt= Peter is shown as a bearded man in draped garment like a toga. He is seated on a chair made of marble, and has his right hand raised in a gesture of blessing while in his left hand he holds two large keys. Behind the statue, the wall is patterned in mosaic to resemble red and gold brocade cloth.|The bronze statue of Saint Peter holding the keys of heaven, attributed to Arnolfo di Cambio.
alt= This marble statue shows the Virgin Mary seated, mourning over the lifeless body of Jesus which is supported across her knees.|The Pietà by Michelangelo, 1498–1499, is in the north aisle.

St. Peter's has many historical associations, with the Early Christian Church, the Papacy, the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-reformation and numerous artists, especially Michelangelo.

ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits

Society of Jesus

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Religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome.

Religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome.

ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits
Ignatius of Loyola
A fresco depicting Ignatius receiving the papal bull from Pope Paul III was created after 1743 by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc.
Jesuits at Akbar's court in India,
Ratio Studiorum, 1598
Jesuit missionary, painting from 1779
Francis Xavier
The Spanish missionary José de Anchieta was, together with Manuel da Nóbrega, the first Jesuit that Ignacio de Loyola sent to America.
Bell made in Portugal for Nanbanji Church run by Jesuits in Japan, 1576–1587
Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi in the 1607 Chinese publication of Euclid's Elements
Confucius, Philosopher of the Chinese, or, Chinese Knowledge Explained in Latin, published by Philippe Couplet, Prospero Intorcetta, Christian Herdtrich, and François de Rougemont at Paris in 1687
A map of the 200-odd Jesuit churches and missions established across China
Bressani map of 1657 depicting the martyrdom of Jean de Brébeuf
Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó in the 18th century, the first permanent Jesuit mission in Baja California, established by Juan María de Salvatierra in 1697
Main altar of the Jesuit colegio in Tepozotlan, now the Museo Nacional del Virreinato
Mexican-born Jesuit Francisco Clavijero (1731–1787) wrote an important history of Mexico.
Acosta's Historia natural y moral de las Indias (1590) text on the Americas
Peter Claver ministering to African slaves at Cartagena
Samuel Fritz's 1707 map showing the Amazon and the Orinoco
Ruins of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana mission in Paraguay, founded by Jesuits in 1706
Manuel da Nóbrega on a commemorative Portuguese stamp of the 400th anniversary of the foundation of São Paulo, Brazil
Jesuit in 18th century, Brazil
Visit of Pope Benedict XVI to the Jesuit-run Pontifical Gregorian University
Pope Francis, the first Jesuit pope
Jesuit Alfred Delp, member of the Kreisau Circle that operated within Nazi Germany was executed in February 1945
Jesuit scholars in China. Top: Matteo Ricci, Adam Schall and Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–88); Bottom: Paul Siu (Xu Guangqi), Colao or Prime Minister of State, and his granddaughter Candide Hiu.
The Sanctuary of Loyola in Azpeitia, Basque Country, Spain, the main Jesuit shrine in the birthplace of Ignatius of Loyola
History of the Jesuit missions in India, China and Japan (Luis de Guzmán, 1601).
The Church of the Gesù in Rome, is the mother church of the Jesuits.
Iglesia de La Compañía, Quito, Ecuador, interior with gold leaf
Church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, Paris, France
Jesuit church, Cuzco, Peru
Colegio de Belén, Havana, "The Palace of Education"
Christ the King Church in the Ateneo de Naga University campus, Naga City, Philippines
Fordham University Church at Rose Hill, Bronx, New York, USA
St. John's Church in Creighton University campus, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Holy Name of Jesus Church in the Loyola University New Orleans campus, New Orleans Louisiana USA
The Church of the Gesu in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, is the school church of Marquette University.
St. Francis Xavier Church, a Jesuit parish church across the street from the Rockhurst University campus, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
St. Francis Xavier College Church in the Saint Louis University campus, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
The Santa Clara University's Mission Church is at the heart of Santa Clara University's historic campus Santa Clara, California, USA.
St. Ignatius Church, a Jesuit parish church in the University of San Francisco campus, San Francisco, California, USA
the Church of the Gesu, Philadelphia is the school church of St. Joseph's Preparatory School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
The Church of the Gesu in Frascati, province of Rome, Italy
The Église du Gesù in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, church and cultural venue
Jakarta Cathedral, Indonesia
Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba, Argentina
Université de Namur, Belgium
University of the Sinos Valley, Brazil
St. Mary's University, Halifax, Canada
Pontifical Xaverian University, Bogota, Colombia
Pontifical Catholic University, Ecuador
University of Ingolstadt, Germany
St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, India
St. Xavier's College, Kolkata, India
Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, Italy
Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan
Elisabeth University of Music, Hiroshima, Japan.
St. Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon
University of Pacific, Peru
Ateneo de Naga University, Philippines
Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea
University of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain
Comillas Pontifical University, Spain
Fordham University, New York City, United States
Fairfield University, Bellarmine Hall, Fairfield, Connecticut, United States
Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology, Frankfurt, Germany
Georgetown University, Washington DC, United States

The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and, later, in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council.

Portrait by Bartolomeo Passarotti (c. 1566, Walters Art Museum in Baltimore)

Pope Pius V

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Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.

Portrait by Bartolomeo Passarotti (c. 1566, Walters Art Museum in Baltimore)
Portrait by Scipione Pulzone, c. 1578
Pius V by Palma il Giovane.
The body of Pius V in his tomb in Santa Maria Maggiore
Portrait of Pius V by Pierre Le Gros on the tomb

He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent, the Counter-Reformation, and the standardization of the Roman Rite within the Latin Church.

Rome

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Capital city of Italy.

Capital city of Italy.

Roman representation of the god Tiber, Capitoline Hill in Rome
Capitoline Wolf, a sculpture of the mythical she-wolf suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus
The Ancient-Imperial-Roman palaces of the Palatine, a series of palaces located in the Palatine Hill, express power and wealth of emperors from Augustus until the 4th century.
The Imperial fora belong to a series of monumental fora (public squares) constructed in Rome by the emperors. Also seen in the image is Trajan's Market.
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, approximately 6.5 e6km2 of land surface.
The Roman Forum are the remains of those buildings that during most of Ancient Rome's time represented the political, legal, religious and economic centre of the city and the neuralgic centre of all the Roman civilisation.
Trajan's Column, triumphal column and place where the relics of Emperor Trajan are placed.
The Pyramid of Cestius and the Aurelian Walls
15th-century illustration depicting the Sack of Rome (410) by the Visigothic king Alaric I
Detail view on an illustration by Raphael portraying the crowning of Charlemagne in Old Saint Peter's Basilica, on 25 December 800
Almost 500 years old, this map of Rome by Mario Cartaro (from 1575) shows the city's primary monuments.
Castel Sant'Angelo or Hadrian's Mausoleum, is a Roman monument radically altered in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance built in 134 AD and crowned with 16th and 17th-century statues.
Fontana della Barcaccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1629
Carnival in Rome, c. 1650
A View of the Piazza Navona, Rome, Hendrik Frans van Lint, c. 1730
Bombardment of Rome by Allied planes, 1943
The municipi of Rome
The Piazza della Repubblica, Rome
The Palazzo del Quirinale, now seat of the President of the Italian Republic
Satellite image of Rome
Aerial view of part of Rome's Centro Storico
Stone pines in the Villa Doria Pamphili
The Esquilino rione
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral, built in 324, and partly rebuilt between 1660 and 1734
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, one of the four papal major basilicas and has numerous architectural styles, built between the 4th century and 1743
St. Peter's Basilica at night from Via della Conciliazione in Rome
The Pantheon, built as a temple dedicated to "all the gods of the past, present and future"
The Colosseum is still today the largest amphitheater in the world. It was used for gladiator shows and other public events (hunting shows, recreations of famous battles and dramas based on classical mythology).
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument
The Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana in EUR district
The Temple of Aesculapius, in the Villa Borghese gardens
The Trevi Fountain. Construction began during the time of Ancient Rome and was completed in 1762 by a design of Nicola Salvi.
Fontana dei Fiumi by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1648
Flaminio Obelisk, Piazza del Popolo
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II at sunset
The Vatican Caves, the place where many popes are buried
Rome chamber of commerce in the ancient Temple of Hadrian
The Sapienza University of Rome, founded in 1303
Biblioteca Casanatense
National Central Library
The Teatro dell'Opera di Roma at the Piazza Beniamino Gigli
The Spanish Steps
Ostia Lido beach
The Vatican Museums are the 3rd most visited art museum in the world.
Via Condotti
Spaghetti alla carbonara, a typical Roman dish
Concia di zucchine, an example of Roman-Jewish cuisine
Sepulchral inscription for Tiberius Claudius Tiberinus, a Plebeian and professional declaimer of poetry. 1st century AD, Museo Nazionale Romano
Stadio Olimpico, home of A.S. Roma and S.S. Lazio, is one of the largest in Europe, with a capacity of over 70,000.
Stadio dei Marmi
Rome–Fiumicino Airport was the tenth busiest airport in Europe in 2016.
Port of Civitavecchia
Roma Metrorail and Underground map, 2016
Conca d'Oro metro station
FAO headquarters in Rome, Circo Massimo
WFP headquarters in Rome
Sculpture dedicated to Rome in the Square Samuel-Paty in Paris
Column dedicated to Paris in 1956 near the Baths of Diocletian
The Piazza della Repubblica, Rome
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral, built in 324, and partly rebuilt between 1660 and 1734

The corruption of the Popes and the huge expenses for their building projects led, in part, to the Reformation and, in turn, the Counter-Reformation.

Inscription on the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran in Rome: Indulgentia plenaria perpetua quotidiana toties quoties pro vivis et defunctis (English: "Perpetual everyday plenary indulgence on every occasion for the living and the dead")

Indulgence

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Indulgence is "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins".

Indulgence is "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins".

Inscription on the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran in Rome: Indulgentia plenaria perpetua quotidiana toties quoties pro vivis et defunctis (English: "Perpetual everyday plenary indulgence on every occasion for the living and the dead")
Apostolic Benediction and Plenary Indulgence Parchment
Archbishop Socrates B. Villegas bestows the Easter Mass Plenary Indulgence in 2012 (St. John the Evangelist Metropolitan Cathedral, Dagupan City, Pangasinan).
A 1948 reproduction of the Stradanus engraving, a 17th-century certificate for indulgences, in return for cash contributions to build a shrine.
A Question to a Mintmaker, woodcut by Jörg Breu the Elder of Augsburg, circa 1530, presenting the Pope and indulgences as one of three causes of inflation, the others being minting of debased coinage and cheating by merchants.
Engraving of the Mass of Saint Gregory by Israhel van Meckenem, 1490s, with an unauthorized indulgence at the bottom
Satan distributing indulgences, an illumination from a Czech manuscript, 1490s; Jan Hus (the main leader of the Bohemian Reformation) had condemned the selling of indulgences in 1412.
Tetzel's coffer, on display at the St. Nikolai church in Jüterbog
An 18th-century absolution certificate granted by the Patriarch of Jerusalem and sold by Greek monks in Wallachia (History Museum, Bucharest)

Eventually the Catholic Counter-Reformation curbed the excesses, but indulgences continue to play a role in modern Catholic religious life.

Portrait by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino

Charles Borromeo

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The Archbishop of Milan from 1564 to 1584 and a cardinal of the Catholic Church.

The Archbishop of Milan from 1564 to 1584 and a cardinal of the Catholic Church.

Portrait by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino
Intercession of Charles Borromeo supported by the Virgin Mary by Rottmayr (Karlskirche, Vienna)
Charles Borromeo intercedes during the plague; painting by Jacob Jordaens (1655)
Painting by Francesco Caccianiga showing an angel tending to Charles Borromeo
Crypt of Charles Borromeo, in the Duomo di Milano
Il Sancarlone (The huge Saint Charles): colossal statue of Carlo Borromeo erected in Arona, Italy in 1697. The work of Giovanni Battista Crespi, the statue is 23 m tall and stands on a plinth 12 m in height.
Depiction of Charles Borromeo in a stained glass window

He was a leading figure of the Counter-Reformation combat against the Protestant Reformation together with Ignatius of Loyola and Philip Neri.