Counterculture of the 1960s

counterculture1960s counterculturecounterculturalcounterculture movementcounterculture eracounter-culturecounterculture movement of the 1960scounterculture of the late 1960scounterculture-eracounter culture
The counterculture of the 1960s was an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed throughout much of the Western world between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s.wikipedia
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Hippie

hippieshippyhippie movement
As the era unfolded, new cultural forms and a dynamic subculture which celebrated experimentation, modern incarnations of Bohemianism, and the rise of the hippie and other alternative lifestyles emerged. The New Left in the United States also included anarchist, countercultural and hippie-related radical groups such as the Yippies who were led by Abbie Hoffman, The Diggers and Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers.
A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.

The Beatles

BeatlesBeatleBeatlesque
This embrace of creativity is particularly notable in the works of British Invasion bands such as the Beatles and filmmakers whose works became far less restricted by censorship.
The group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form and to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s.

British Invasion

The British InvasionBritish pop invasionBritish dominance
This embrace of creativity is particularly notable in the works of British Invasion bands such as the Beatles and filmmakers whose works became far less restricted by censorship.
The British Invasion was a cultural phenomenon of the mid-1960s, when rock and pop music acts from the United Kingdom and other aspects of British culture became popular in the United States and significant to the rising "counterculture" on both sides of the Atlantic.

Human Potential Movement

human potentialself-developmentgrowth movement
The emergence of an interest in expanded spiritual consciousness, yoga, occult practices and increased human potential helped to shift views on organized religion during the era.
The Human Potential Movement (HPM) arose out of the counterculture milieu of the 1960s and formed around the concept of cultivating extraordinary potential that its advocates believe to lie largely untapped in all people.

Drop City

“rural commune”
Early communities, such as the Hog Farm, Quarry Hill, and Drop City
Drop City was a counterculture artists' community that formed in southern Colorado in 1965.

Easy Rider

1969 Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper film of the same namecustomized Harley-Davidson bikesEasy Rider',
Successful 60s new films of the New Hollywood were Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate, The Wild Bunch, and Peter Fonda's Easy Rider,
A landmark counterculture film, and a "touchstone for a generation" that "captured the national imagination," Easy Rider explores the societal landscape, issues, and tensions in the United States during the 1960s, such as the rise of the hippie movement, drug use, and communal lifestyle.

Disco

disco musicdisco eraanti-disco backlash
The fashion dominance of the counterculture effectively ended with the rise of the Disco and Punk Rock eras in the later 1970s, even as the global popularity of T-shirts, denim jeans, and casual clothing in general have continued to grow.
Disco can be seen as a reaction by the counterculture during this period to both the dominance of rock music and the stigmatization of dance music at the time.

Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War

opposition to the Vietnam Waranti-Vietnam Waranti-Vietnam War movement
Main Article:Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War
Many in the peace movement within the U.S. were students, mothers, or anti-establishment hippies.

1968 Democratic National Convention protest activity

protests1968 Democratic National Convention1968 Democratic National Convention protests
In the US, the social tension between elements of the counterculture and law enforcement reached the breaking point in many notable cases, including: the Columbia University protests of 1968 in New York City, the 1968 Democratic National Convention protests in Chicago, the arrest and imprisonment of John Sinclair in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and the Kent State shootings at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, where National Guardsman acted as surrogates for police.
In 1967, counterculture and anti-Vietnam War protest groups had been promising to come to Chicago and disrupt the convention, and the city promised to maintain law and order.

Bonnie and Clyde (film)

Bonnie and ClydeBonnie & ClydeBonnie and Clyde'' (film)
Successful 60s new films of the New Hollywood were Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate, The Wild Bunch, and Peter Fonda's Easy Rider,
It broke many cinematic taboos and for some members of the counterculture, the film was considered to be a "rallying cry."

Sexual revolution

sexual liberationsexually liberatedsexual
The availability of new and more effective forms of birth control was a key underpinning of the sexual revolution.
As well, changing mores were both stimulated by and reflected in literature and films, and by the social movements of the period, including the counterculture, the women's movement, and the gay rights movement.

Barry Miles

BarryMiles
Underground figure Barry Miles said, "The underground was a catch-all sobriquet for a community of like-minded anti-establishment, anti-war, pro-rock'n'roll individuals, most of whom had a common interest in recreational drugs. They saw peace, exploring a widened area of consciousness, love and sexual experimentation as more worthy of their attention than entering the rat race. The straight, consumerist lifestyle was not to their liking, but they did not object to others living it. But at that time the middle classes still felt they had the right to impose their values on everyone else, which resulted in conflict."
Barry Miles (born 21 February 1943) is an English author known for his participation in and writing on the subjects of the 1960s London underground and counterculture.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
As the 1960s progressed, widespread social tensions also developed concerning other issues, and tended to flow along generational lines regarding human sexuality, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychoactive drugs, and differing interpretations of the American Dream.
The use of entheogens for religious purposes resurfaced in the West during the counterculture movements of the 1960s and 70s.

John Sinclair (poet)

John SinclairSinclair
In the US, the social tension between elements of the counterculture and law enforcement reached the breaking point in many notable cases, including: the Columbia University protests of 1968 in New York City, the 1968 Democratic National Convention protests in Chicago, the arrest and imprisonment of John Sinclair in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and the Kent State shootings at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, where National Guardsman acted as surrogates for police.
The sentence was criticized by many as unduly harsh, and it galvanized a noisy protest movement led by prominent figures of the 1960s counterculture.

UK underground

undergroundBritish undergroundLondon underground
The UK Underground was a movement linked to the growing subculture in the US and associated with the hippie phenomenon, generating its own magazines and newspapers, fashion, music groups, and clubs.
Many in the blossoming underground movement were influenced by 1950s Beatnik Beat generation writers such as William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, who paved the way for the hippies and the counterculture of the 1960s.

Richard Nixon

Richard M. NixonNixonPresident Nixon
It became absorbed into the popular culture with the termination of US combat military involvement in Southeast Asia and the end of the draft in 1973, and ultimately with the resignation of President Richard Nixon in August 1974.
He appealed to what he later called the "silent majority" of socially conservative Americans who disliked the hippie counterculture and the anti-war demonstrators.

Counterculture

counterculturalcounter-culturecounter-cultural
The New Left in the United States also included anarchist, countercultural and hippie-related radical groups such as the Yippies who were led by Abbie Hoffman, The Diggers and Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers.
Prominent examples of Late Modern countercultures in the Western world include Romanticism (1790–1840), Bohemianism (1850–1910), the more fragmentary counterculture of the Beat Generation (1944–1964), followed by the globalized counterculture of the 1960s (1964–1974), usually associated with the hippie subculture and the diversified punk subculture of the 1970s and 1980s.

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in VietnamSecond Indochina War
The aggregate movement gained momentum as the Civil Rights Movement continued to grow, and, with the expansion of the US government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam, would later become revolutionary.
Many young people protested because they were the ones being drafted, while others were against the war because the anti-war movement grew increasingly popular among the counterculture.

Environmentalism

environmentalenvironmentalistEcologism
Environmentalism grew from a greater understanding of the ongoing damage caused by industrialization, resultant pollution, and the misguided use of chemicals such as pesticides in well-meaning efforts to improve the quality of life for the rapidly growing population.
In the 1970s, the environmental movement gained rapid speed around the world as a productive outgrowth of the counterculture movement.

American Dream

The American DreamAmerican idealAmerican variant
As the 1960s progressed, widespread social tensions also developed concerning other issues, and tended to flow along generational lines regarding human sexuality, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychoactive drugs, and differing interpretations of the American Dream.
Many counterculture films of the 1960s and 1970s ridiculed the traditional quest for the American Dream.

Western dress codes

Western dress codeundressWestern fashion
Ultimately, practical and comfortable casual apparel, namely updated forms of T-shirts (often tie-dyed, or emblazoned with political or advertising statements), and Levi Strauss-branded blue denim jeans became the enduring uniform of the generation, as daily wearing of suits along with traditional Western dress codes declined in use.
Formal i.e. white tie, semi-formal i.e. black tie, and informal i.e. suit, all have roots in 19th century customs subsequent to the replacement of the 18th century generic justaucorps, and has remained essentially fixed defined since the 20th century, despite decline following the counterculture of the 1960s.

Whole Earth Catalog

The Whole Earth CatalogWhole EarthThe Last Whole Earth Catalog
At the start of the 1970s, counterculture-oriented publications like the Whole Earth Catalog and The Mother Earth News were popular, out of which emerged a back to the land movement.
The Whole Earth Catalog (WEC) was an American counterculture magazine and product catalog published by Stewart Brand several times a year between 1968 and 1972, and occasionally thereafter, until 1998.

Abbie Hoffman

AbbieAmerica HoffmanAbbie Hoffman incident
The New Left in the United States also included anarchist, countercultural and hippie-related radical groups such as the Yippies who were led by Abbie Hoffman, The Diggers and Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers.
Hoffman continued his activism into the 1970s, and remains an icon of the anti-war movement and the counterculture era.

Levi Strauss & Co.

LeviLevisLevi’s
Ultimately, practical and comfortable casual apparel, namely updated forms of T-shirts (often tie-dyed, or emblazoned with political or advertising statements), and Levi Strauss-branded blue denim jeans became the enduring uniform of the generation, as daily wearing of suits along with traditional Western dress codes declined in use.
Between the 1950s and 1980s, Levi's jeans became popular among a wide range of youth subcultures, including greasers, mods, rockers, and hippies.

Greenwich Village

Greenwich Village, New YorkGreenwich Village Historic DistrictGreenwich Village, Manhattan
The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City.
In the 20th century, Greenwich Village was known as an artists' haven, the Bohemian capital, the cradle of the modern LGBT movement, and the East Coast birthplace of both the Beat and '60s counterculture movements.