The Moroccan-American Treaty of Peace and Friendship, sealed by Sultan Mohammed III.
Underwater atomic test "Baker", Bikini Atoll, Pacific Ocean, 1946
Free Speech activist Mario Savio on the steps of Sproul Hall, University of California, Berkeley, 1966
King's "I Have a Dream" speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington
A family watches television, c. 1958
Anti-war protesters
Carnaby Street, London, 1966
Oz number 31 cover
Three radical icons of the sixties. Encounter between Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre and Ernesto "Che" Guevara in Cuba, in 1960
Yellow Power activist Richard Aoki at a Black Panther Party rally.
Herbert Marcuse, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory, was an influential libertarian socialist thinker on the radical student movements of the era and philosopher of the New Left
Eugene McCarthy, anti-war candidate for the Democratic nomination for the US presidency in 1968
A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City
The cover of an early Whole Earth Catalog shows the Earth as seen by astronauts traveling back from the Moon
Frisbee and alternative 1960s disc sports icon Ken Westerfield
A small part of the crowd of 400,000, after the rain, Woodstock, United States, August 1969
The Jimi Hendrix Experience performs for the Dutch television show Fenklup in March 1967
The Doors performing for Danish television in 1968
Recording "Give Peace a Chance". Left to right: Rosemary Leary (face not visible), Tommy Smothers (with back to camera), John Lennon, Timothy Leary, Yoko Ono, Judy Marcioni and Paul Williams, June 1, 1969.
The plaque honoring the victims of the August 1970 Sterling Hall bombing, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
A small segment of the "Wall" at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial listing the names of the nearly 60,000 American war dead
Jerry Rubin, University at Buffalo, March 10, 1970

List of treaties to which the United States has been a party or which have had direct relevance to U.S. history.

- List of United States treaties

Internal political disagreements concerning treaty obligations in Southeast Asia (SEATO), especially in Vietnam, and debate as to how other communist insurgencies should be challenged, also created a rift of dissent within the establishment.

- Counterculture of the 1960s

500 related topics


Vietnam War

Conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

Clockwise from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng

ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive

Two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident

ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive

Civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị

Burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre
The Geneva Conference, 1954
Ba Cut in Can Tho Military Court 1956, commander of religious movement the Hòa Hảo, which had fought against the Việt Minh, Vietnamese National Army and Cao Dai movement throughout the first war
Map of insurgency and "disturbances", 1957 to 1960
U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles greet President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam in Washington, 8 May 1957
The Ho Chi Minh trail, known as the Truong Son Road by the North Vietnamese, cuts through Laos. This would develop into a complex logistical system which would allow the North Vietnamese to maintain the war effort despite the largest aerial bombardment campaign in history
The Ho Chi Minh trail required, on average, four months of rough-terrain travel for combatants from North Vietnam destined for the Southern battlefields.
President Kennedy's news conference of 23 March 1961
South Vietnam, Military Regions, 1967
Kennedy and McNamara
ARVN forces capture a Viet Cong
Ngô Đình Diệm after being shot and killed in a coup on 2 November 1963
Viet Cong fighters crossing a river
A U.S. B-66 Destroyer and four F-105 Thunderchiefs dropping bombs on North Vietnam during Operation Rolling Thunder
ARVN Forces and a US Advisor inspect a downed helicopter, Battle of Dong Xoai, June 1965
A Marine from 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, moves a suspected Viet Cong during a search and clear operation held by the battalion 15 mi west of Da Nang Air Base, 1965.
Peasants suspected of being Viet Cong under detention of U.S. Army, 1966
Heavily bandaged woman burned by napalm, with a tag attached to her arm which reads "VNC Female" meaning Vietnamese civilian
A US "tunnel rat" soldier prepares to enter a Viet Cong tunnel.
Viet Cong soldier crouches in a bunker with an SKS rifle
ARVN forces assault a stronghold in the Mekong Delta.
Viet Cong before departing to participate in the Tet Offensive around Saigon-Gia Dinh
North Vietnamese regular army forces
The ruins of a section of Saigon, in the Cholon neighborhood, following fierce fighting between ARVN forces and Viet Cong Main Force battalions
Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin with U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson at the Glassboro Summit Conference where the two representatives discussed the possibilities of a peace settlement
Propaganda leaflet urging the defection of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese to the side of the Republic of Vietnam
ARVN and US Special Forces, September 1968
An alleged Viet Cong captured during an attack on an American outpost near the Cambodian border is interrogated.
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Soviet advisers inspecting the debris of a B-52 downed in the vicinity of Hanoi
American POWs recently released from North Vietnamese prison camps, 1973
Civilians in a NVA/Viet Cong controlled zone. Civilians were required to show appropriate flags, during the War of the flags
Memorial commemorating the 1974 Buon Me Thuot campaign, depicting a Montagnard of the Central Highlands, a NVA soldier and a T-54 tank
The capture of Hue, March 1975
Victorious PAVN troops at the Presidential Palace, Saigon
Anti-war demonstration in the US, 1967
Ho Chi Minh from the Việt Minh independence movement and Việt Cộng with East German sailors in Stralsund harbour, 1957
Leonid Brezhnev (left) was the Soviet Union's leader during the Vietnam War.
Soviet anti-air instructors and North Vietnamese crewmen in the spring of 1965 at an anti-aircraft training center in Vietnam
Vietnam People's Air Force pilots walk by their aircraft, the MiG-17. The development of the North Vietnamese Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) during the war was assisted by Warsaw Pact nations throughout the war. Between 1966 and 1972 a total of 17 flying aces was credited by the VPAF against US fighters.
Fidel Castro meeting with Võ Nguyên Giáp at the Vietnam Military History Museum
East German solidarity stamp depicting a Vietnamese mother and child with the text "Unconquerable Vietnam"
The Thai Queen's Cobra battalion in Phuoc Tho
An Australian soldier in Vietnam
Victims of the My Lai massacre
Napalm burn victims during the war being treated at the 67th Combat Support Hospital
Interment of victims of the Huế Massacre
Da Nang, South Vietnam, 1968
A nurse treats a Vietnamese child, 1967
Female Viet Cong guerrilla in combat
Master-Sergeant and pharmacist Do Thi Trinh, part of the WAFC, supplying medication to ARVN dependents
Memorial temple to Nguyễn Thị Định and the female volunteers of the Viet Cong whom she commanded. They came to call themselves the "Long-Haired Army".
A wounded African-American soldier being carried away, 1968
Guerrillas assemble shells and rockets delivered along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
UH-1D helicopters airlift members of a U.S. infantry regiment, 1966
North Vietnamese SAM crew in front of SA-2 launcher. The Soviet Union provided North Vietnam with considerable anti-air defence around installations.
Bombs being dropped by the B-52 Stratofortress long-range strategic bomber.
B-52 wreckage in Huu Tiep Lake, Hanoi. Downed during Operation Linebacker II, its remains have turned into a war monument.
Vietnamese refugees fleeing Vietnam, 1984
A bombed Buddha statue in Laos. U.S. bombing campaigns made Vietnam the single most bombed country in history.
Captured U.S.-supplied armored vehicles and artillery pieces
A young Marine private waits on the beach during the Marine landing, Da Nang, 3 August 1965
A marine gets his wounds treated during operations in Huế City, in 1968
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and General Westmoreland talk with General Tee on conditions of the war in Vietnam.
U.S. helicopter spraying chemical defoliants in the Mekong Delta, South Vietnam, 1969
Handicapped children in Vietnam, most of them victims of Agent Orange, 2004
Cemetery for ten unmarried girls who volunteered for logistical activities, who died in a B-52 raid at Đồng Lộc Junction, a strategic junction along the Ho Chi Minh trail
Stone plaque with photo of the "Thương tiếc" (Mourning Soldier) statue, originally, installed at the Republic of Vietnam National Military Cemetery. The original statue was demolished in April 1975.

Many young people protested because they were the ones being drafted, while others were against the war because the anti-war movement grew increasingly popular among the counterculture.

Bob Dylan

American singer-songwriter.

Dylan at Azkena Rock Festival in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, in June 2010
The Zimmerman family home in Hibbing, Minnesota
Dylan with Joan Baez during the civil rights "March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom", August 28, 1963
Bobby Dylan, as the college yearbook lists him: St. Lawrence University, upstate New York, November 1963
The cinéma vérité documentary Dont Look Back (1967) follows Dylan on his 1965 tour of England. An early music video for "Subterranean Homesick Blues" was used as the film's opening segment.
Dylan in 1966
Bob Dylan and the Band commenced their 1974 tour in Chicago on January 3.
Bob Dylan with Allen Ginsberg on the Rolling Thunder Revue in 1975. Photo: Elsa Dorfman
Dylan performing in the De Kuip Stadium, Rotterdam, June 23, 1978
Dylan in Toronto April 18, 1980
Dylan in Barcelona, Spain, 1984
Dylan performs during the 1996 Lida Festival in Stockholm
Dylan, the Spectrum, 2007
Bob Dylan performs at Air Canada Centre, Toronto, November 7, 2006
Dylan and the Obamas at the White House, after a performance celebrating music from the civil rights movement (February 9, 2010)
Dylan performing at Finsbury Park, London, June 18, 2011
President Obama presents Dylan with a Medal of Freedom, May 2012
Dylan mural in Minneapolis by Eduardo Kobra

Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" (1963) and "The Times They Are a-Changin' (1964) became anthems for the civil rights and antiwar movements. His lyrics during this period incorporated a range of political, social, philosophical, and literary influences, defying pop music conventions and appealing to the burgeoning counterculture.

The Beatles

English rock band, formed in Liverpool in 1960, that comprised John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr.

The Beatles in 1964; clockwise from top left: John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr and George Harrison
Main entrance at EMI Studios (now Abbey Road Studios, pictured 2007)
The band's logo was designed by Ivor Arbiter.
McCartney, Harrison, Swedish pop singer Lill-Babs and Lennon on the set of the Swedish television show Drop-In, 30 October 1963
The Beatles arriving at John F. Kennedy International Airport, 7 February 1964
The Beatles performing on The Ed Sullivan Show, February 1964
McCartney, Harrison and Lennon performing on Dutch TV in 1964
The US trailer for Help! with (from the rear) Harrison, McCartney, Lennon and (largely obscured) Starr
The band at a press conference in Minnesota in August 1965, shortly after playing at Shea Stadium in New York
San Francisco's Candlestick Park (pictured in the early 1960s) was the venue for the Beatles' final concert before a paying audience.
Front cover of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, "the most famous cover of any music album, and one of the most imitated images in the world"
The Beatles, known as "the White Album" for its minimalist cover, conceived by pop artist Richard Hamilton "in direct contrast to Sgt. Pepper", while also suggesting a "clean slate"
American soul musician Billy Preston (pictured in 1971) was, for a short time, considered a fifth Beatle during the Get Back sessions.
Apple Corps building at 3 Savile Row, site of the Let It Be rooftop concert
Starr and McCartney introduced the video game The Beatles: Rock Band at the 2009 E3 convention.
A Höfner "violin" bass guitar and Gretsch Country Gentleman guitar, models played by McCartney and Harrison, respectively; the Vox AC30 amplifier behind them is the model the Beatles used during performances in the early 1960s.
Martin (second from right) in the studio with the Beatles in the mid-1960s
The Beatles in 1967; clockwise from left: Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr

They are regarded as the most influential band of all time and were integral to the development of 1960s counterculture and popular music's recognition as an art form.


Set of clothes comprising a suit jacket and trousers of identical textiles worn with a collared dress shirt, necktie, and dress shoes.

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and U.S. President Barack Obama wearing Western-style business suits.
Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India, and Vladimir Putin, President of Russia, in business suits. Note that Modi is wearing a Jodhpuri with Mandarin collar, commonplace in India, while Putin's jacket features notch lapels, more common in the Western world.
U.S. Ambassador to the U.N Samantha Power and Israeli President Reuven Rivlin wearing business wear suits as per their sex, 2016
A man dressed in a three-piece suit and bowler hat.
Single- vs. double-breasted jacket
Comparison of two notched lapel cuts: English (left) and Spanish (right). The former is the most commonly seen notched lapel
A traditional waistcoat, to be worn with a two-piece suit or separate jacket and trousers.
Angélica Rivera wearing a modern-day skirt suit

Hats were almost always worn outdoors (and sometimes indoors) with all men's clothes until the counterculture of the 1960s in Western culture.


Opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom" and to authoritarian government.

Egoist philosopher Max Stirner has been called a proto-existentialist philosopher while at the same time is a central theorist of individualist anarchism

The hippie and larger counterculture movements of the 1960s carried out a way of life and activism which was ideally carried through anti-authoritarian and non-violent means.

American Dream

National ethos of the United States, the set of ideals in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, as well as an upward social mobility for the family and children, achieved through hard work in a society with few barriers.

During the mid-to-late 19th and early 20th-century of the United States, for many immigrants, the Statue of Liberty was their first view of the country. It signified new opportunities in life and thus the statue is an iconic symbol of the American Dream.
Americanization of California (1932) by Dean Cornwell
European governments, worried that their best young people would leave for America, distributed posters like this to frighten them (this 1869 Swedish anti-emigration poster contrasts Per Svensson's dream of the American idyll (left) and the reality of his life in the wilderness (right), where he is menaced by a mountain lion, a big snake and wild Indians who are scalping and disembowelling someone).
Wealth inequality in the United States increased from 1989 to 2013.
Shanghai in 2019

Many counterculture films of the 1960s and 1970s ridiculed the traditional quest for the American Dream.


Young people near the Woodstock music festival in August 1969
Contemporary hippie at the Rainbow Gathering in Russia, 2005
A hippie-painted Volkswagen Beetle
American tourists in Thailand, the early 1970s
– Grateful Dead, lyrics from "That's It for the Other One"
Junction of Haight and Ashbury Streets, San Francisco, celebrated as the central location of the Summer of Love
Swami Satchidananda giving the opening talk at the Woodstock Festival of 1969
A group of hippies in Tallinn, 1989
Couple attending Snoqualmie Moondance Festival, August 1993
Tie-dyed clothes, associated with hippie culture
A 1967 VW Kombi bus decorated with hand-painting
Monument to the hippie era. Tamil Nadu, India
Oz number 28, also known as the "Schoolkids issue of Oz", which was the main cause of a 1971 high-profile obscenity case in the United Kingdom. Oz was a UK underground publication with a general hippie / counter-cultural point of view.
Hand-crafted Hippie Truck, 1968
Hippie Truck interior
Timothy Leary, family and band on a lecture tour at State University of New York at Buffalo in 1969
An anti-war demonstrator offers a flower to a Military Police officer during the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam's 1967 March on the Pentagon
Tahquitz Canyon, Palm Springs, California, 1969, sharing a joint
As a hippie, Ken Westerfield helped to popularize the alternative sport of Frisbee in the 1960s–70s, that has become today's disc sports
Hippies at the Nambassa 1981 Festival in New Zealand
Goa Gil, original 1960s hippie who later became a pioneering electronic dance music DJ and party organizer, here appearing in the 2001 film Last Hippie Standing

A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in British English, is someone associated with the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.

Peter Fonda

American actor, director and screenwriter.

Fonda in 2009
Jane, Henry and Peter Fonda in the 1950s
Fonda guest starring with Patty McCormack in The New Breed television series, 1962
Replica of the "Captain America" Harley-Davidson chopper that Fonda rode in Easy Rider (1969), on display in a German museum.
Fonda at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival

He was a part of the counterculture of the 1960s.

Sexual revolution

Social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the United States and the developed world from the 1960s to the 1970s.

Playboy Bunnies aboard US Navy ship (USS Wainwright (CG-28)), 1971
1997 LGBT poster, New York City

As well, changing mores were both stimulated by and reflected in literature and films, and by the social movements of the period, including the counterculture, the women's movement, and the gay rights movement.

Bonnie and Clyde (film)

1967 American biographical neo-noir crime drama film directed by Arthur Penn and starring Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway as the title characters Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker.

Theatrical premiere teaser poster
The real Bonnie and Clyde, March 1933
A replica, made for the film, of the Ford V8 in which Bonnie and Clyde died, is on display at the Alcatraz East museum

It broke many cinematic taboos and for some members of the counterculture, the film was considered a "rallying cry".