Counterpoint

contrapuntalcontrapuntallydissonant counterpointspecies counterpointcontrapuntistimitative counterpointcontrapuntocountrapuntalstrict counterpointcontrapunctal
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.wikipedia
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Harmony

harmoniesharmonicharmony vocal
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
Counterpoint, which refers to the relationship between melodic lines, and polyphony, which refers to the simultaneous sounding of separate independent voices, are thus sometimes distinguished from harmony.

Polyphony

polyphonicpolyphonic musicpolyphonically
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
Baroque forms such as fugue, which might be called polyphonic, are usually described instead as contrapuntal.

Classical music

classicalWestern classical musicEuropean classical music
It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque.
Works of classical repertoire often exhibit complexity in their use of orchestration, counterpoint, harmony, musical development, rhythm, phrasing, texture, and form.

Renaissance music

RenaissancemusicRenaissance composer
It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque.
On the other hand, rules of counterpoint became more constrained, particularly with regard to treatment of dissonances.

Canon (music)

canoncanonscanonic
Some examples of related compositional techniques include: the round (familiar in folk traditions), the canon, and perhaps the most complex contrapuntal convention: the fugue.
In music, a canon is a contrapuntal (counterpoint-based) compositional technique that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e.g., quarter rest, one measure, etc.).

Fugue

fugalfugatodouble fugue
Some examples of related compositional techniques include: the round (familiar in folk traditions), the canon, and perhaps the most complex contrapuntal convention: the fugue.
In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition.

Common practice period

common practicecommon-practicecommon practice harmony
It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque.
Common-practice tonality represents a union between harmonic function and counterpoint.

Music

audiomusicalPop
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
An important variant of this, much used in 17th-century British music and in the Passacaglia and Chaconne, was that of the ground bass – a repeating bass theme or basso ostinato over and around which the rest of the structure unfolds, often, but not always, spinning polyphonic or contrapuntal threads, or improvising divisions and descants.

Part (music)

partvoiceparts
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
Part-writing (or voice leading) is the composition of parts in consideration of harmony and counterpoint.

Baroque music

BaroqueBaroque eraBaroque period
It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque.
Harmony is the end result of counterpoint, and figured bass is a visual representation of those harmonies commonly employed in musical performance.

Inventions and Sinfonias (Bach)

Inventions and SinfoniasInventionsTwo-part Inventions
Bach's 3-part Invention in F minor combines three independent melodies:
The Inventions and Sinfonias, BWV 772–801, also known as the Two- and Three-Part Inventions, are a collection of thirty short keyboard compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750): 15 inventions, which are two-part contrapuntal pieces, and 15 sinfonias, which are three-part contrapuntal pieces.

Imitation (music)

imitationimitativeimitations
All of these are examples of imitative counterpoint.
In counterpoint, imitation occurs in a second voice, usually at a different pitch.

Inversion (music)

inversioninversionsinverted
Zacconi, unlike later theorists, included a few extra contrapuntal techniques, such as invertible counterpoint.
In music theory, the word inversion has distinct, but related, meanings when applied to intervals, chords, voices (in counterpoint), and melodies.

Gioseffo Zarlino

ZarlinoGioseffe ZarlinoGioseffo
The 16th-century Venetian theorist Zarlino elaborated on the idea in his influential Le institutioni harmoniche, and it was first presented in a codified form in 1619 by Lodovico Zacconi in his Prattica di musica.
He was possibly the most famous European music theorist between Aristoxenus and Rameau, and made a large contribution to the theory of counterpoint as well as to musical tuning.

Rhythm

Rhythmicrhythmsrhythmic pattern
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
White defines composite rhythm as, "the resultant overall rhythmic articulation among all the voices of a contrapuntal texture".

Johann Joseph Fux

Johann FuxFuxFOUCHS [sic],JOHANN JOSEPH
In 1725 Johann Joseph Fux published Gradus ad Parnassum (Steps to Parnassus), in which he described five species:
He is most famous as the author of Gradus ad Parnassum, a treatise on counterpoint, which has become the single most influential book on the Palestrinian style of Renaissance polyphony.

Consecutive fifths

parallel fifthparallel fifthsparallel fifths and octaves
Though used in, and evocative of, various kinds of popular, folk, and medieval music, parallel motion in perfect consonances (P1, P5, P8) is strictly forbidden in species counterpoint instruction (1725–present) and during the common practice period, consecutive fifths were strongly discouraged.

Nonchord tone

suspensionsuspensionspassing tone
Such tones are most obvious in homophonic music but occur at least as frequently in contrapuntal music.

Cambiata

There are three figures to consider: The nota cambiata, double neighbor tones, and double passing tones.
Generally it refers to a pattern in a homophonic or polyphonic (and usually contrapuntal) setting of a melody where a note is skipped from (typically by an interval of a third) in one direction (either going up in pitch or going down in pitch) and this is followed by the note, and then by motion in the opposite direction (in pitch), and where either the note skipped from is distinguished as a dissonance or the note skipped to is distinguished as a non-harmonic or non-chordal tone.

Neoclassicism (music)

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Associated with neoclassicism, the technique was first used in Igor Stravinsky's Octet (1923), inspired by J. S. Bach and Giovanni Palestrina.
The neoclassical impulse found its expression in such features as the use of pared-down performing forces, an emphasis on rhythm and on contrapuntal texture, an updated or expanded tonal harmony, and a concentration on absolute music as opposed to Romantic program music.

Three Blind Mice

a farmer's wifeof the same nameThe Farmer's Wife
For example, "Frère Jacques" and "Three Blind Mice" combine euphoniously when sung together.
In the song, Oldfield sings the rhyme (among other lyrics) as a lower counterpoint vocal to his sister, who sings completely different lyrics on a different, slower melody, in a high voice.

Johann Sebastian Bach

BachJ.S. BachJ. S. Bach
Bach's 3-part Invention in F minor combines three independent melodies: Associated with neoclassicism, the technique was first used in Igor Stravinsky's Octet (1923), inspired by J. S. Bach and Giovanni Palestrina.
Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organisation, and his adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France.

Augmentation (music)

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This technique is often used in contrapuntal music, as in the "canon by augmentation" ("per augmentationem"), in which the notes in the following voice or voices are longer than those in the leading voice, usually twice the original length.

Carl Ruggles

Other composers who have used dissonant counterpoint, if not in the exact manner prescribed by Charles Seeger, include Johanna Beyer, John Cage, Ruth Crawford-Seeger, Vivian Fine, Carl Ruggles, Henry Cowell, Carlos Chávez, John J. Becker, Henry Brant, Lou Harrison, Wallingford Riegger, and Frank Wigglesworth.
He wrote finely crafted pieces using "dissonant counterpoint", a term coined by Charles Seeger to describe Ruggles' music.

Contrapuntal motion

contrary motionparallel motionOblique motion
These motions are generally avoided in traditional counterpoint because they offer the lines so little independence from each other.