Crab Pulsar

CrabCrab-like pulsarPSR B0531+21pulsar in the Crab nebula
The Crab Pulsar (PSR B0531+21) is a relatively young neutron star.wikipedia
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Crab Nebula

Crab1952Crab Pulsar
The star is the central star in the Crab Nebula, a remnant of the supernova SN 1054, which was widely observed on Earth in the year 1054. The Crab Nebula is often used as a calibration source in X-ray astronomy.
At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar, a neutron star 28 - 30 km across with a spin rate of 30.2 times per second, which emits pulses of radiation from gamma rays to radio waves.

SN 1054

supernova of 10541054 Supernovaa 3-week long supernova in 1054
The star is the central star in the Crab Nebula, a remnant of the supernova SN 1054, which was widely observed on Earth in the year 1054.
The core of the exploding star formed a pulsar, called the Crab Pulsar (or PSR B0531+21).

Optical pulsar

The optical pulsar is roughly 20 km in diameter and the pulsar "beams" rotate once every 33 milliseconds, or 30 times each second.
There are very few of these known: the Crab pulsar was detected by stroboscopic techniques in 1969, shortly after its discovery in radio waves, at the Steward Observatory.

Pulsar

pulsarsradio pulsarRotation-powered pulsar
Discovered in 1968, the pulsar was the first to be connected with a supernova remnant.
The discovery of the Crab pulsar later in 1968 seemed to provide confirmation of the rotating neutron star model of pulsars.

Neutron star

neutron starsStellar spin-downdying star
The Crab Pulsar (PSR B0531+21) is a relatively young neutron star.
The majority of neutron stars detected, including those identified in optical, X-ray and gamma rays, also emit radio waves; the Crab Pulsar produces electromagnetic emissions across the spectrum.

Arecibo Observatory

AreciboArecibo radio telescopeNational Astronomy and Ionosphere Center
The period and location of the Crab Nebula pulsar NP 0532 was discovered by Richard Lovelace and collaborators November 10, 1968, at the Arecibo radio observatory.
In 1968, the discovery of the periodicity of the Crab Pulsar (33 milliseconds) by Lovelace and others provided the first solid evidence that neutron stars exist.

Walter Baade

W. BaadeBaadeBaade, Walter
In September 1942, Walter Baade ruled out the "north following" star, but found the evidence inconclusive for the "south preceding" star.

Supernova remnant

supernova remnantsremnantSNR
The star is the central star in the Crab Nebula, a remnant of the supernova SN 1054, which was widely observed on Earth in the year 1054. Discovered in 1968, the pulsar was the first to be connected with a supernova remnant.

Supernova

supernovaecore-collapse supernovasupernovas
The star is the central star in the Crab Nebula, a remnant of the supernova SN 1054, which was widely observed on Earth in the year 1054.

Synchrotron radiation

synchrotron lightsynchrotron emissionsynchrotron
The outflowing relativistic wind from the neutron star generates synchrotron emission, which produces the bulk of the emission from the nebula, seen from radio waves through to gamma rays.

Radio wave

radio wavesradioradio signal
The outflowing relativistic wind from the neutron star generates synchrotron emission, which produces the bulk of the emission from the nebula, seen from radio waves through to gamma rays.

Gamma ray

gamma radiationgamma raysgamma-ray
The outflowing relativistic wind from the neutron star generates synchrotron emission, which produces the bulk of the emission from the nebula, seen from radio waves through to gamma rays.

Heliosphere

heliopausetermination shockheliosheath
The most dynamic feature in the inner part of the nebula is the point where the pulsar's equatorial wind slams into the surrounding nebula, forming a termination shock.

Nanosecond

nsnanoseconds300 MHz
The period of the pulsar's rotation is slowing by 38 nanoseconds per day due to the large amounts of energy carried away in the pulsar wind.

X-ray astronomy

X-ray emissionX-rayX-ray source
The Crab Nebula is often used as a calibration source in X-ray astronomy.

X-ray

X-raysX raysoft X-ray
It is very bright in X-rays and the flux density and spectrum are known to be constant, with the exception of the pulsar itself.

Flux

flux densityion fluxflow
It is very bright in X-rays and the flux density and spectrum are known to be constant, with the exception of the pulsar itself.

Electromagnetic spectrum

spectrumspectraspectral
It is very bright in X-rays and the flux density and spectrum are known to be constant, with the exception of the pulsar itself.

Electronvolt

MeVeVkeV
A millicrab corresponds to a flux density of about 2.4 erg s −1 cm −2 (2.4 W m −2) in the 2–10 keV X-ray band, for a "crab-like" X-ray spectrum, which is roughly a powerlaw in photon energy, I = 9.5 E −1.1.

Rudolph Minkowski

R. MinkowskiRudolf MinkowskiMinkowski
Rudolf Minkowski, in the same issue of The Astrophysical Journal as Baade, advanced spectral arguments claiming that the "evidence admits, but does not prove, the conclusion that the south preceding star is the central star of the nebula".

The Astrophysical Journal

Astrophysical JournalAstrophysical Journal LettersThe Astrophysical Journal Letters
Rudolf Minkowski, in the same issue of The Astrophysical Journal as Baade, advanced spectral arguments claiming that the "evidence admits, but does not prove, the conclusion that the south preceding star is the central star of the nebula".

Astronomy Reports

Soviet Astronomy
A radio source was also reported coincident with the Crab Nebula in late 1968 by L. I. Matveenko in Soviet Astronomy.

Jocelyn Bell Burnell

Dame Jocelyn Bell BurnellJocelyn BellSusan Jocelyn Bell Burnell
Jocelyn Bell Burnell, who co-discovered the first pulsar PSR B1919+21 in 1967, relates that in the late 1950s a woman viewed the Crab Nebula source at the University of Chicago's telescope, then open to the public, and noted that it appeared to be flashing.

PSR B1919+21

LGM-1CP 1919first pulsar
Jocelyn Bell Burnell, who co-discovered the first pulsar PSR B1919+21 in 1967, relates that in the late 1950s a woman viewed the Crab Nebula source at the University of Chicago's telescope, then open to the public, and noted that it appeared to be flashing.

Twinkling

scintillationtwinkleScintillation (astronomy)
The astronomer she spoke to, Elliot Moore, disregarded the effect as scintillation, despite the woman's protestation that as a qualified pilot she understood scintillation and this was something else.