Crack cocaine

crackcrack-cocainecrack pipecrack addictfreebase cocainerockcocaine baseCocaine bingecrack addictioncrack cocaine induced intoxication
Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked.wikipedia
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Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked. A crack rock acts as a local anesthetic (see: cocaine), numbing the tongue or mouth only where directly placed.
With further processing crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine.

Crack epidemic

crack cocaine epidemiccrack boom86 crack blitz
Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".
The American crack epidemic was a surge of crack cocaine use in major cities across the United States between the early 1980s and the early 1990s.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug usedrugs
Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".
Cocaine: It is available as a white powder, which is insufflated ("sniffed" into the nostrils) or converted into a solution with water and injected. A popular derivative, crack cocaine is typically smoked. When transformed into its freebase form, crack, the cocaine vapour may be inhaled directly. This is thought to increase bioavailability, but has also been found to be toxic, due to the production of methylecgonidine during pyrolysis.

Methylecgonidine

Many of these issues relate specifically to the release of methylecgonidine and its effect on the heart, lungs, and liver.
Methylecgonidine is a pyrolysis product formed when crack cocaine is smoked, making this substance a useful biomarker to specifically test for use of crack cocaine, as opposed to powder cocaine which does not form methylecgonidine as a metabolite.

Love rose

artificial rosesglass crack pipeglass tube
Smoking problems: Any route of administration poses its own set of health risks; in the case of crack cocaine, smoking tends to be more harmful than other routes. Crack users tend to smoke the drug because that has a higher bioavailability than other routes typically used for drugs of abuse such as insufflation. Crack has a melting point of around 90 °C (194 °F), and the smoke does not remain potent for long. Therefore, crack pipes are generally very short, to minimize the time between evaporating and ingestion (thereby minimizing loss of potency). Having a very hot pipe pressed against the lips often causes cracked and blistered lips, colloquially known as "crack lip". The use of "convenience store crack pipes" – glass tubes which originally contained small artificial roses – may contribute to this condition. These 4-inch (10-cm) pipes are not durable and will quickly develop breaks; users may continue to use the pipe even though it has been broken to a shorter length. The hot pipe might burn the lips, tongue, or fingers, especially when passed between people who take hits in rapid succession, causing the short pipe to reach higher temperatures than if used by one person alone.
While ostensibly intended as romantic gifts, their primary known use is as a crack pipe by users of crack cocaine.

Free base

freebasingfreebasefree-base
Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked.
A solution of cocaine hydrochloride can also be heated ("cooked") in a pan with baking soda added until a solid "rock" is formed, pieces of which can be smoked directly (crack cocaine).

Fair Sentencing Act

Fair Sentencing Act of 2010
This sentencing disparity was reduced from 100-to-1 to 18-to-1 by the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010.
The Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 was an Act of Congress that was signed into federal law by U.S. President Barack Obama on August 3, 2010 that reduces the disparity between the amount of crack cocaine and powder cocaine needed to trigger certain federal criminal penalties from a 100:1 weight ratio to an 18:1 weight ratio and eliminated the five-year mandatory minimum sentence for simple possession of crack cocaine, among other provisions.

Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986

Anti-Drug Abuse Act1986 Anti-Drug Abuse Act
The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 increased penalties for crack cocaine possession and usage.
The appearance of crack cocaine, the June 19, 1986 death of Len Bias (University of Maryland basketball star), the morning after he signed with the NBA champion Boston Celtics, and the June 27, 1986 death of Don Rogers (safety) (Cleveland Browns, 1985 Defensive Rookie of the Year) -- both from cocaine use, encouraged U.S. Rep. Thomas P. (Tip) O'Neill, Jr. (D-MA), the Speaker of the House of Representatives, to mobilize the House Democratic leadership to assemble an omnibus anti-drug bill that became the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986.

Timeline of Rob Ford video scandal

a substance abuse scandala videoallegations
Rob Ford, the 64th mayor of Toronto, was filmed smoking crack while he was in office.
In May 2013, the American website Gawker and the Toronto Star reported that they had viewed a cellphone video that showed Toronto Mayor Rob Ford smoking crack cocaine and commenting on political issues.

CIA involvement in Contra cocaine trafficking

ContrasadmitCentral Intelligence Agency's admitted drug trafficking in Los Angeles to support Nicaraguan Contras
CIA and Contras cocaine trafficking in the US
The charges of CIA involvement in Contra cocaine trafficking were revived in 1996, when a newspaper series by reporter Gary Webb in the San Jose Mercury News claimed that the trafficking had played an important role in the creation of the crack cocaine drug problem in the United States.

Misuse of Drugs Act 1971

Misuse of Drugs ActThe Misuse of Drugs Act 1971Class A drug
In the United Kingdom, crack is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.
Class A includes heroin, cocaine, crack, MDMA ("ecstasy"), methamphetamine, LSD, DMT and psilocybin mushrooms.

Rob Ford

Mayor of TorontoMayor FordRob
Rob Ford, the 64th mayor of Toronto, was filmed smoking crack while he was in office.
Ford participated in several debates but went on a leave of absence in May and June to deal with his substance abuse issues after a video surfaced of him smoking crack cocaine.

Cocaine paste

coca pastecocaine base pasteoxidado
Cocaine paste ("paco")
Crack cocaine

Euphoria

euphoriceuphorianthigh
Crack offers a short but intense high to smokers.

Poverty in the United States

federal poverty levelpovertypoverty line
Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".

Inner city

inner-cityinner citiesinner city neighborhoods
Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".

New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".

Philadelphia

Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia, PACity of Philadelphia
Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".

Baltimore

Baltimore, MarylandBaltimore, MDBaltimore City
Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".

Washington, D.C.

WashingtonDistrict of ColumbiaWashington, DC
Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, CaliforniaLos Angeles, CALA
Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".

Miami

Miami, FloridaMiami, FLCity of Miami
Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".

Local anesthetic

local anestheticslocal anaestheticlocal
A crack rock acts as a local anesthetic (see: cocaine), numbing the tongue or mouth only where directly placed.

Levamisole

tetramisolelevamisole hydrochloride
Use of toxic adulterants such as levamisole has been documented.

Sodium bicarbonate

baking sodabicarbonate of sodaNaHCO 3
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3, common baking soda) is a base used in preparation of crack, although other weak bases may substitute for it. The net reaction when using sodium bicarbonate is