Cradle-to-cradle design

Cradle to Cradlecradle-to-cradleCradle to Cradle DesignCradle 2 CradleCradle to Cradle Silver CertificationCradle to Cradle-certifiedcradle-to-cradle approachcradle-to-cradle recyclingdegradable materialsfrom cradle to cradle
Cradle-to-cradle design (also referred to as 2CC2, C2C, cradle 2 cradle, or regenerative design) is a biomimetic approach to the design of products and systems that models human industry on nature's processes viewing materials as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms.wikipedia
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Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things

Cradle to Cradle
In 2002, Braungart and William McDonough published a book called Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, a manifesto for cradle-to-cradle design that gives specific details of how to achieve the model.
It is a manifesto detailing how to achieve their Cradle to Cradle Design model.

William McDonough

William A. McDonoughBill McDonoughCradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute
In 2002, Braungart and William McDonough published a book called Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, a manifesto for cradle-to-cradle design that gives specific details of how to achieve the model.
William McDonough and his architecture and urban design firm, William McDonough + Partners, ground their work in Cradle to Cradle Design, a philosophy developed by McDonough and German chemist Dr. Michael Braungart in their 2002 book, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things.

Michael Braungart

BraungartBraungart, Michael
The current model is based on a system of "lifecycle development" initiated by Michael Braungart and colleagues at the Environmental Protection Encouragement Agency (EPEA) in the 1990s and explored through the publication A Technical Framework for Life-Cycle Assessment.
He currently holds the Cradle-to-Cradle chair at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Regenerative design

Regenerative (design)regenerationRegenerative
Cradle-to-cradle design (also referred to as 2CC2, C2C, cradle 2 cradle, or regenerative design) is a biomimetic approach to the design of products and systems that models human industry on nature's processes viewing materials as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms. Building off the whole systems approach of John T. Lyle's regenerative design, the model in its broadest sense is not limited to industrial design and manufacturing; it can be applied to many aspects of human civilization such as urban environments, buildings, economics and social systems.
Swiss architect Walter R. Stahel developed approaches entirely similar to Lyle's also in the late 1970s but instead coined the term cradle-to-cradle design made popular by McDonough and Michael Braungart.

The Biosphere Rules

The academic research of companies lead to the elaboration of the Biosphere Rules, a set of five principles derived from nature that guide the implementation of circular models in production.
Case studies of first mover companies adopting closed loop or cradle-to-cradle design for product development found common elements that made closed-loop systems viable in a business context.

Walter R. Stahel

Walter R Stahel
The phrase "cradle to cradle" itself was coined by Walter R. Stahel in the 1970s.

Aquion Energy

Jay Whitacre
In April 2015 they announced they have been cradle-to-cradle design certified.

The Environmental Institute

C2C principles were first applied to systems in the early 1990s by Braungart's Hamburger Umweltinstitut (HUI) and The Environmental Institute in Brazil for biomass nutrient recycling of effluent to produce agricultural products and clean water as a byproduct.
OIA projects are among the first and most comprehensive applications of the Intelligent Products System, which evolved into the Cradle to Cradle system.

Ecoleasing

take back their products for disassembly
At present though, few laws are put in place in any country to oblige manufacturers to take back their products for disassembly, nor are there even such obligations for manufacturers of cradle-to-cradle products.
Ecoleasing is a system in which goods (mainly from the technical cycle, i.e. appliances, ...) are rented to a client for a certain period of time after which he returns the goods so the company that made it can recycle the materials.

Ecological design

Ecodesigneco-designdesign of new cars
Some claim that C2C certification may not be entirely sufficient in all eco-design approaches.
An eco-design product has a cradle-to-cradle life cycle ensuring zero waste is created in the whole process.

Eco-costs

See for instance the LCA-based model of the eco-costs, which has been designed to cope with analyses of recycle systems.
The eco-costs of a product are the sum of all eco-costs of emissions and use of resources during the life cycle "from cradle to cradle".

Material ConneXion

In 2007, MBDC and the EPEA formed a strategic partnership with global materials consultancy Material ConneXion to help promote and disseminate C2C design principles by providing greater global access to C2C material information, certification and product development.
Through its partnership with McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC) and the Environmental Protection and Encouragement Agency (EPEA), Material ConneXion is the only Materials Library in the world to feature Cradle to Cradle assessed and certified materials and the only materials consultancy to offer Cradle to Cradle Certification and Cradle to Cradle product development.

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive

WEEE DirectiveWaste Electrical and Electronic EquipmentWEEE
One process where this is happening is in the EU with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive.

Appropriate technology

appropriate technologiesintermediate technologytechnology critics
When obtained, the materials may be recycled over and over in the own city/community, using the cradle to cradle design method.

Biomimetics

biomimeticbiomimicrybio-mimetic
Cradle-to-cradle design (also referred to as 2CC2, C2C, cradle 2 cradle, or regenerative design) is a biomimetic approach to the design of products and systems that models human industry on nature's processes viewing materials as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
Cradle-to-cradle design (also referred to as 2CC2, C2C, cradle 2 cradle, or regenerative design) is a biomimetic approach to the design of products and systems that models human industry on nature's processes viewing materials as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms.

Ecosystem

ecosystemsenvironmenteco-system
C2C suggests that industry must protect and enrich ecosystems and nature's biological metabolism while also maintaining a safe, productive technical metabolism for the high-quality use and circulation of organic and technical nutrients.

Organic compound

syntheticorganicorganic compounds
C2C suggests that industry must protect and enrich ecosystems and nature's biological metabolism while also maintaining a safe, productive technical metabolism for the high-quality use and circulation of organic and technical nutrients.

Holism

holisticholisticallygestalt
It is a holistic, economic, industrial and social framework that seeks to create systems that are not only efficient but also essentially waste free.

John T. Lyle

Building off the whole systems approach of John T. Lyle's regenerative design, the model in its broadest sense is not limited to industrial design and manufacturing; it can be applied to many aspects of human civilization such as urban environments, buildings, economics and social systems.

Industrial design

industrial designerindustrialdesign
Building off the whole systems approach of John T. Lyle's regenerative design, the model in its broadest sense is not limited to industrial design and manufacturing; it can be applied to many aspects of human civilization such as urban environments, buildings, economics and social systems.

Manufacturing

manufacturermanufacturemanufacturers
Building off the whole systems approach of John T. Lyle's regenerative design, the model in its broadest sense is not limited to industrial design and manufacturing; it can be applied to many aspects of human civilization such as urban environments, buildings, economics and social systems.

Urban area

Urbanurban agglomerationagglomeration
Building off the whole systems approach of John T. Lyle's regenerative design, the model in its broadest sense is not limited to industrial design and manufacturing; it can be applied to many aspects of human civilization such as urban environments, buildings, economics and social systems.

Social system

social systemssocialsocietal system
Building off the whole systems approach of John T. Lyle's regenerative design, the model in its broadest sense is not limited to industrial design and manufacturing; it can be applied to many aspects of human civilization such as urban environments, buildings, economics and social systems.

Manifesto

election manifestomanifestospolitical manifesto
In 2002, Braungart and William McDonough published a book called Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, a manifesto for cradle-to-cradle design that gives specific details of how to achieve the model.