Crash (computing)

crashcrashescrashedcrashingcomputer crashsystem crashsystem crashesapplication crashapplication crashesCrash to desktop
In computing, a crash, or system crash, occurs when a computer program such as a software application or an operating system stops functioning properly and exits.wikipedia
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Crash reporter

Apport (software)crash logcrash reporting
The program responsible may appear to hang until a crash reporting service reports the crash and any details relating to it.
A crash reporter is usually a system software whose function is to identify reporting crash details and to alert when there are crashes, in production or on development / testing environments.

Fatal system error

bug checkerror screenfatal error
If the program is a critical part of the operating system, the entire system may crash or hang, often resulting in a kernel panic or fatal system error.
A fatal system error, also known as a system crash, stop error, kernel error, or bug check, occurs when an operating system halts, because it has reached a condition where it can no longer operate safely.

Buffer overflow

buffer overflowsbuffer overrunbuffer overruns
Typical causes include incorrect address values in the program counter, buffer overflow, overwriting a portion of the affected program code due to an earlier bug, accessing invalid memory addresses, using an illegal opcode or triggering an unhandled exception.
If this overwrites adjacent data or executable code, this may result in erratic program behavior, including memory access errors, incorrect results, and crashes.

Software bug

bugsbugsoftware bugs
Typical causes include incorrect address values in the program counter, buffer overflow, overwriting a portion of the affected program code due to an earlier bug, accessing invalid memory addresses, using an illegal opcode or triggering an unhandled exception.
Bugs may have subtle effects or cause the program to crash or freeze the computer.

Hang (computing)

hangfreezefreezes
The program responsible may appear to hang until a crash reporting service reports the crash and any details relating to it. If the program is a critical part of the operating system, the entire system may crash or hang, often resulting in a kernel panic or fatal system error.
A hang differs from a crash, in which the failure is immediate and unrelated to the responsiveness of inputs.

Core dump

memory dumpcrash dumpdump
Unix applications traditionally responded to the signal by dumping core.
In computing, a core dump, crash dump, memory dump, or system dump consists of the recorded state of the working memory of a computer program at a specific time, generally when the program has crashed or otherwise terminated abnormally.

Segmentation fault

access violationSIGSEGVsegmentation violation
For example, a stack buffer overflow can overwrite the return address of a subroutine with an invalid value, which will cause a segmentation fault when the subroutine returns.
Processes can in some cases install a custom signal handler, allowing them to recover on their own, but otherwise the OS default signal handler is used, generally causing abnormal termination of the process (a program crash), and sometimes a core dump.

Division by zero

divide by zerodividing by zerodivided by zero
Depending on the programming environment and the type of number (e.g. floating point, integer) being divided by zero, it may generate positive or negative infinity by the IEEE 754 floating point standard, generate an exception, generate an error message, cause the program to terminate, result in a special not-a-number value, a freeze via infinite loop, or a crash.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
In computing, a crash, or system crash, occurs when a computer program such as a software application or an operating system stops functioning properly and exits.

Debugging

debugdebuggedanti-debugging
The original software bug that started this chain of events is typically considered to be the cause of the crash, which is discovered through the process of debugging.
For example, a bug in a compiler can make it crash when parsing some large source file.

Blue screen of death

BSoDblue screenStop error
It indicates a system crash, in which the operating system has reached a condition where it can no longer operate safely.

Guru Meditation

The Grim Reaper
The Guru Meditation is an error notice displayed by early versions of the Commodore Amiga computer when they crashed.

SystemRescueCD

System Rescue CD
The primary purpose of SystemRescueCD is to repair un-bootable or otherwise damaged computer systems after a system crash.

Data loss

Reboot

hard rebootrebootingcold boot
"Random reboot" is a non-technical term referring to an unintended (and often undesired) reboot following a system crash, whose root cause may not immediately be evident to the user.

Computing

computer technologycomputing technologyapplied computing
In computing, a crash, or system crash, occurs when a computer program such as a software application or an operating system stops functioning properly and exits.

Exit (system call)

exitterminatedterminates
In computing, a crash, or system crash, occurs when a computer program such as a software application or an operating system stops functioning properly and exits.

Kernel panic

controlled mannerkernel crashpanic
If the program is a critical part of the operating system, the entire system may crash or hang, often resulting in a kernel panic or fatal system error.

Instruction set architecture

instruction setinstructionsinstruction
Most crashes are the result of executing invalid machine instructions.

Address space

addressaddressableaddressed
Typical causes include incorrect address values in the program counter, buffer overflow, overwriting a portion of the affected program code due to an earlier bug, accessing invalid memory addresses, using an illegal opcode or triggering an unhandled exception.

Program counter

instruction pointerPCprogram counter (PC)
Typical causes include incorrect address values in the program counter, buffer overflow, overwriting a portion of the affected program code due to an earlier bug, accessing invalid memory addresses, using an illegal opcode or triggering an unhandled exception.

Illegal opcode

illegal instructioninvalid opcodeundocumented instructions
Typical causes include incorrect address values in the program counter, buffer overflow, overwriting a portion of the affected program code due to an earlier bug, accessing invalid memory addresses, using an illegal opcode or triggering an unhandled exception.

Exception handling

exceptionexceptionserror handling
Typical causes include incorrect address values in the program counter, buffer overflow, overwriting a portion of the affected program code due to an earlier bug, accessing invalid memory addresses, using an illegal opcode or triggering an unhandled exception.

Source code

codesourcesource file
The original bug can be far removed from the code that actually crashed.

Exploit (computer security)

exploitexploitssecurity exploit
Some crashes are exploitable and let a malicious program or hacker to execute arbitrary code allowing the replication of viruses or the acquisition of data which would normally be inaccessible.