Creatine

creatine monohydrateCreatine ethyl estercreatine supplementsCrCreatine (Cr)Creatine deficiencycreatine supplementKrebiozon
Creatine ( or ) is an organic compound with the nominal formula (H 2 N)(HN)CN(CH 3 )CH 2 CO 2 H.wikipedia
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Michel Eugène Chevreul

ChevreulEugène ChevreulEugene Chevreul
Creatine was first identified in 1832 when Michel Eugène Chevreul isolated it from the basified water-extract of skeletal muscle.
He is credited with the discovery of margaric acid, creatine, and designing an early form of soap made from animal fats and salt.

Creatinine

serum creatininenormal kidney functioncreatinin
In 1928, creatine was shown to exist in equilibrium with creatinine.
Creatinine itself is produced via a biological system involving creatine, phosphocreatine (also known as creatine phosphate), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, the body's immediate energy supply).

Phosphocreatine

creatine phosphateFosfocreatinePhosphocreatine (PCr)
In the late 1920s, after finding that the intramuscular stores of creatine can be increased by ingesting creatine in larger than normal amounts, scientists discovered creatine phosphate, and determined that creatine is a key player in the metabolism of skeletal muscle. Creatine itself can be phosphorylated by creatine kinase to form phosphocreatine, which is used as an energy buffer in skeletal muscles and the brain. During times of increased energy demands, the phosphagen (or ATP/PCr) system rapidly resynthesizes ATP from ADP with the use of phosphocreatine (PCr) through a reversible reaction with the enzyme creatine kinase (CK).
Phosphocreatine, also known as creatine phosphate (CP) or PCr (Pcr), is a phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle and the brain to recycle adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell.

EAS (nutrition brand)

Experimental and Applied SciencesEASEAS Sports Nutrition
At the time, low-potency creatine supplements were available in Britain, but creatine supplements designed for strength enhancement were not commercially available until 1993 when a company called Experimental and Applied Sciences (EAS) introduced the compound to the sports nutrition market under the name Phosphagen.
After discovering the possible benefits for athletes of creatine monohydrate supplementation, in December 1992 they acquired a kilogram of creatine and began trials.

Glycocyamine

guanidinoacetateguanidinoaceticguanidinoacetic acid
In the first step of the biosynthesis these two amino acids are combined by the enzyme arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT, EC:2.1.4.1) to form guanidinoacetate, which is then methylated by guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT, EC:2.1.1.2), using S-adenosyl methionine as the methyl donor.
In vertebrate organism it is then transformed into creatine by methylation.

Creatine kinase

creatine phosphokinaseCPKCK
Creatine itself can be phosphorylated by creatine kinase to form phosphocreatine, which is used as an energy buffer in skeletal muscles and the brain. During times of increased energy demands, the phosphagen (or ATP/PCr) system rapidly resynthesizes ATP from ADP with the use of phosphocreatine (PCr) through a reversible reaction with the enzyme creatine kinase (CK).
CK catalyses the conversion of creatine and uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to create phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase

Glycine amidinotransferaseAGATEC 2.1.4.1
In the first step of the biosynthesis these two amino acids are combined by the enzyme arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT, EC:2.1.4.1) to form guanidinoacetate, which is then methylated by guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT, EC:2.1.1.2), using S-adenosyl methionine as the methyl donor. Deficiencies in the two synthesis enzymes can cause L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency caused by variants in GATM and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, caused by variants in GAMT.
The products are L -ornithine and glycocyamine, also known as guanidinoacetate, the immediate precursor of creatine.

Cerebral creatine deficiency

cerebral creatine deficienciescerebral creatine deficiency (CCD)severe neurological defects
Genetic deficiencies in the creatine biosynthetic pathway lead to various severe neurological defects.
Cerebral creatine deficiencies are a small group of inherited disorders that result from defects in creatine biosynthesis and utilization.

Creatine transporter defect

A third defect, creatine transporter defect, is caused by mutations in SLC6A8 and inherited in a X-linked manner.
Creatine Transporter Deficiency(CTD) is an inborn error of creatine metabolism in which creatine is not properly transported to the brain and muscles due to defective creatine transporters.

Adenosine triphosphate

ATPadenosine triphosphate (ATP)adenosine 5'-triphosphate
Creatine is found in vertebrates where it facilitates recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in muscle and brain tissue.

Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency

GAMT deficiencyguanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT)
Deficiencies in the two synthesis enzymes can cause L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency caused by variants in GATM and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, caused by variants in GAMT.
It is the first described disorder of creatine metabolism, and results from deficient activity of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of creatine.

GATM (gene)

GATM
Deficiencies in the two synthesis enzymes can cause L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency caused by variants in GATM and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, caused by variants in GAMT.
This enzyme is involved in creatine biosynthesis, whereby it catalyzes the transfer of a guanido group from L-arginine to glycine, resulting in guanidinoacetic acid, the immediate precursor of creatine.

Arginine

ArgL-arginineR
Creatine is not an essential nutrient as it is naturally produced in the human body from the amino acids glycine and arginine, with an additional requirement for methionine to catalyze the transformation of guanidinoacetate to creatine.
Arginine is also a precursor for urea, ornithine, and agmatine; is necessary for the synthesis of creatine; and can also be used for the synthesis of polyamines (mainly through ornithine and to a lesser degree through agmatine, citrulline, and glutamate.) The presence of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a close relative, inhibits the nitric oxide reaction; therefore, ADMA is considered a marker for vascular disease, just as L -arginine is considered a sign of a healthy endothelium.

Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase

GAMTguanidinoacetate methyltransferase
In the first step of the biosynthesis these two amino acids are combined by the enzyme arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT, EC:2.1.4.1) to form guanidinoacetate, which is then methylated by guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT, EC:2.1.1.2), using S-adenosyl methionine as the methyl donor. Deficiencies in the two synthesis enzymes can cause L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency caused by variants in GATM and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, caused by variants in GAMT.
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and guanidinoacetate, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine and creatine.

Phosphagen

During times of increased energy demands, the phosphagen (or ATP/PCr) system rapidly resynthesizes ATP from ADP with the use of phosphocreatine (PCr) through a reversible reaction with the enzyme creatine kinase (CK).
The majority of animals use arginine as phosphagen; however, the phylum Chordata (i.e., animals with spinal cords) use creatine.

Heterocyclic amine

heterocyclic aminesHCAheterocyclic base
When creatine is mixed with protein and sugar at high temperatures (above 148 °C), the resulting reaction produces carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs).
HCAs form when amino acids and creatine (a chemical found in muscles) react at high cooking temperatures.

Guanidine

guanidiniumguanidinoGuanidines
Creatine is a derivative of the guanidinium cation.
Examples of guanidines are arginine, triazabicyclodecene, saxitoxin, and creatine.

Creatine methyl ester

Creatine methyl ester is the methyl ester derivative of the amino acid creatine.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
Creatine's impact on mitochondrial function has led to research on its efficacy and safety for slowing Parkinson's disease.
Agents currently under investigation include, antiglutamatergics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (selegiline, rasagiline), promitochondrials (coenzyme Q10, creatine), calcium channel blockers (isradipine) and growth factors (GDNF).

Organic compound

syntheticorganicorganic compounds
Creatine ( or ) is an organic compound with the nominal formula (H 2 N)(HN)CN(CH 3 )CH 2 CO 2 H. This species exists in various modifications (tautomers) in solution.

Tautomer

tautomerizationtautomerismtautomers
In 1928, creatine was shown to exist in equilibrium with creatinine. Creatine ( or ) is an organic compound with the nominal formula (H 2 N)(HN)CN(CH 3 )CH 2 CO 2 H. This species exists in various modifications (tautomers) in solution.

Vertebrate

Vertebratavertebratesvertebral
Creatine is found in vertebrates where it facilitates recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in muscle and brain tissue.

Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
Creatine is found in vertebrates where it facilitates recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in muscle and brain tissue.

Brain

brain functionmammalian braincerebral
Creatine is found in vertebrates where it facilitates recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in muscle and brain tissue.