Creatinine

serum creatininenormal kidney functioncreatininCreatinine Phosphatekidney functionSerum creatinine levelurine creatinine
Creatinine ( or ; from κρέας) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).wikipedia
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Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
Serum creatinine (a blood measurement) is an important indicator of renal health because it is an easily measured byproduct of muscle metabolism that is excreted unchanged by the kidneys.
Procedures used in the management of kidney disease include chemical and microscopic examination of the urine (urinalysis), measurement of kidney function by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the serum creatinine; and kidney biopsy and CT scan to evaluate for abnormal anatomy.

Creatine

creatine monohydrateCreatine ethyl estercreatine supplements
Creatinine itself is produced via a biological system involving creatine, phosphocreatine (also known as creatine phosphate), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, the body's immediate energy supply).
In 1928, creatine was shown to exist in equilibrium with creatinine.

Renal function

glomerular filtration ratekidney functioncreatinine clearance
Creatinine is removed from the blood chiefly by the kidneys, primarily by glomerular filtration, but also by proximal tubular secretion.
Creatinine clearance rate (C Cr or CrCl) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time and is a useful measure for approximating the GFR.

Phosphocreatine

creatine phosphateFosfocreatinePhosphocreatine (PCr)
Creatinine itself is produced via a biological system involving creatine, phosphocreatine (also known as creatine phosphate), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, the body's immediate energy supply). Creatinine ( or ; from κρέας) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
Creatine phosphate can be broken down into creatinine, which is then excreted in the urine.

Cimetidine

TagametCimehexal
Ketoacids, cimetidine, and trimethoprim reduce creatinine tubular secretion and, therefore, increase the accuracy of the GFR estimate, in particular in severe renal dysfunction.

Glycocyamine

guanidinoacetateguanidinoaceticguanidinoacetic acid
Creatine is synthesized primarily in the liver from the methylation of glycocyamine (guanidino acetate, synthesized in the kidney from the amino acids arginine and glycine) by S-Adenosyl methionine.
The shelf Life of guanidinoacetate in acidic aqueous solution is significantly higher than that of creatine, which cyclizes to creatinine under acid catalysis.

BUN-to-creatinine ratio

ratio of BUN to creatinine
BUN-to-creatinine ratio (the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine) can indicate other problems besides those intrinsic to the kidney; for example, a urea concentration raised out of proportion to the creatinine may indicate a prerenal problem such as volume depletion.
In medicine, the BUN-to-creatinine ratio is the ratio of two serum laboratory values, the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (mg/dL) and serum creatinine (Cr) (mg/dL).

Urea

carbamideBosch–Meiser urea processCO(NH 2 ) 2
An alternate estimation of renal function can be made when interpreting the blood (plasma) concentration of creatinine along with that of urea.
It is used as a marker of renal function, though it is inferior to other markers such as creatinine because blood urea levels are influenced by other factors such as diet and dehydration.

Inulin

(2,1-beta-D-fructosyl) n F12 Inulin
(In the absence of secretion, creatinine behaves like inulin.)
However, due to clinical limitations, inulin and sinistrin, although characterised by better handling features, are rarely used for this purpose and creatinine values are the standard for determining an approximate GFR.

Renal physiology

tubular secretionhyperosmolalitykidney function
Creatinine is removed from the blood chiefly by the kidneys, primarily by glomerular filtration, but also by proximal tubular secretion.
A simple means of estimating renal function is to measure pH, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and basic electrolytes (including sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate).

Nephron

renal tubulenephronsrenal tubules
A rise in blood creatinine concentration is a late marker, observed only with marked damage to functioning nephrons.
Substances secreted include urea, creatinine, potassium, hydrogen, and uric acid.

Trimethoprim

PrimsolProloprimSulmeprim
Ketoacids, cimetidine, and trimethoprim reduce creatinine tubular secretion and, therefore, increase the accuracy of the GFR estimate, in particular in severe renal dysfunction.

Jaffe reaction

The Jaffe reaction is a colorimetric method used in clinical chemistry to determine creatinine levels in blood and urine.

Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failureend-stage renal diseasechronic kidney failure
Serum creatinine concentrations may increase when an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) is taken for heart failure and chronic kidney disease.
Diagnosis of CKD is largely based on history, examination and urine dipstick combined with the measurement of the serum creatinine level (see above).

Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome
Creatinine formation is a result of the breakdown of muscular tissue, it is transported in the blood and eliminated in urine.

Cystatin C

CST3Cystatin 3
Cross-sectional studies (based on a single point in time) suggest that serum levels of cystatin C are a more precise test of kidney function (as represented by the glomerular filtration rate, GFR) than serum creatinine levels.

Baseline (medicine)

baselinebaseline (pharmacology)baseline case
While a baseline serum creatinine of 2.0 mg/dL (177 μmol/L) may indicate normal kidney function in a male body builder, a serum creatinine of 1.6 mg/dL (110 μmol/L) can indicate significant renal disease in an elderly female.
Whereas if a patient with kidney failure (whose creatinine is usually 3.0 mg/dL) suddenly has a creatinine of 5.0 mg/dL, then his creatinine is out of his normal.

Hyperkalemia

high blood potassiumhyperkalaemiahigh blood potassium levels
Therefore, usage of ACEI should not be stopped unless an increase of serum creatinine exceeded 30% or hyperkalemia develops.
Generally, blood tests for kidney function (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen), glucose and occasionally creatine kinase and cortisol are performed.

Reference ranges for blood tests

reference rangeblood valuesblood levels
The typical human reference ranges for serum creatinine are 0.5 mg/dL to 1.0 mg/dL (about 45 μmol/L to 90 μmol/L) for women and 0.7 mg/dL to 1.2 mg/dL (60 μmol/L to 110 μmol/L) for men.

Rhabdomyolysis

muscle breakdownrapid muscle breakdownbreakdown of skeletal muscle
A diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis may be suspected in anyone who has suffered trauma, crush injury or prolonged immobilization, but it may also be identified at a later stage due to deteriorating kidney function (abnormally raised or increasing creatinine and urea levels, falling urine output) or reddish-brown discoloration of the urine.

Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
Creatinine ( or ; from κρέας) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).

Serum (blood)

serumblood serumsera
Serum creatinine (a blood measurement) is an important indicator of renal health because it is an easily measured byproduct of muscle metabolism that is excreted unchanged by the kidneys.

Adenosine triphosphate

ATPadenosine triphosphate (ATP)adenosine 5'-triphosphate
Creatinine itself is produced via a biological system involving creatine, phosphocreatine (also known as creatine phosphate), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, the body's immediate energy supply).

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
Creatine is synthesized primarily in the liver from the methylation of glycocyamine (guanidino acetate, synthesized in the kidney from the amino acids arginine and glycine) by S-Adenosyl methionine.

Arginine

ArgL-arginineR
Creatine is synthesized primarily in the liver from the methylation of glycocyamine (guanidino acetate, synthesized in the kidney from the amino acids arginine and glycine) by S-Adenosyl methionine.