Creativity

creativecreative processcreative thinkingcreativenessartistic creativitycreatecreative freedomcreative activitycreative impulsecreator
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.wikipedia
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Idea

brainchildideasconcept
The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scientific theory, a musical composition, or a joke) or a physical object (such as an invention, a literary work, or a painting).
The capacity to create and understand the meaning of ideas is considered to be an essential and defining feature of human beings.

Invention

inventorinventionsinventors
The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scientific theory, a musical composition, or a joke) or a physical object (such as an invention, a literary work, or a painting).
Invention is also an important component of artistic and design creativity.

Intelligence

intelligenthuman intelligenceintellect
Scholarly interest in creativity is found in a number of disciplines, primarily psychology, business studies, and cognitive science, but also education, technology, engineering, philosophy (particularly philosophy of science), theology, sociology, linguistics, and economics, covering the relations between creativity and general intelligence, personality type, mental and neurological processes, mental health, or artificial intelligence; the potential for fostering creativity through education and training; the fostering of creativity for national economic benefit, and the application of creative resources to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning.
Intelligence has been defined in many ways, including: the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.

Ideation (creative process)

ideationIdea generation
A focus on the nature of the creative person considers more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, autonomy, expertise, exploratory behavior, and so on. A focus on place considers the circumstances in which creativity flourishes, such as degrees of autonomy, access to resources, and the nature of gatekeepers.
Ideation is the creative process of generating, developing, and communicating new ideas, where an idea is understood as a basic element of thought that can be either visual, concrete, or abstract.

Genius

high intelligencegenius-level intellectgeniuses
In the writing of Thomas Hobbes, imagination became a key element of human cognition; William Duff was one of the first to identify imagination as a quality of genius, typifying the separation being made between talent (productive, but breaking no new ground) and genius.
There is no scientifically precise definition of genius, and the question of whether the notion itself has any real meaning has long been a subject of debate, although psychologists are converging on a definition that emphasizes creativity and eminent achievement.

Divergent thinking

divergentexploreDivergent production
J. P. Guilford drew a distinction between convergent and divergent production (commonly renamed convergent and divergent thinking).
Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions.

Incubation (psychology)

incubation
This new theory constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight).
Incubation is one of the four proposed stages of creativity, which are preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification.

Ellis Paul Torrance

E. Paul TorranceDr. E. Paul TorranceTorrance Test of Creative Thinking Ability
As an illustration, one definition given by Dr. E. Paul Torrance described it as "a process of becoming sensitive to problems, deficiencies, gaps in knowledge, missing elements, disharmonies, and so on; identifying the difficulty; searching for solutions, making guesses, or formulating hypotheses about the deficiencies: testing and retesting these hypotheses and possibly modifying and retesting them; and finally communicating the results." Building on Guilford's work, Torrance developed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking in 1966.
Torrance is best known for his research in creativity.

Analogy

analogousanalogiesanalogical
In the 1990s, various approaches in cognitive science that dealt with metaphor, analogy, and structure mapping have been converging, and a new integrative approach to the study of creativity in science, art and humor has emerged under the label conceptual blending.
Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving, as well as decision making, argumentation, perception, generalization, memory, creativity, invention, prediction, emotion, explanation, conceptualization and communication.

Robert Sternberg

Robert J. SternbergSternberg, Robert J.
In a summary of scientific research into creativity, Michael Mumford suggested: "Over the course of the last decade, however, we seem to have reached a general agreement that creativity involves the production of novel, useful products" (Mumford, 2003, p. 110), or, in Robert Sternberg's words, the production of "something original and worthwhile".
Higher mental functions, including intelligence and creativity and wisdom

Openness to experience

opennessopen mindedopen-mindedness
Openness to experience has been shown to be consistently related to a whole host of different assessments of creativity.
Openness to experience correlates with creativity, as measured by tests of divergent thinking.

Imagination

imaginativeimaginaryimaginative faculty
By the 18th century and the Age of Enlightenment, mention of creativity (notably in aesthetics), linked with the concept of imagination, became more frequent.
Psychologists have studied imaginative thought, not only in its exotic form of creativity and artistic expression but also in its mundane form of everyday imagination.

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

CsikszentmihalyiMihály CsíkszentmihályiCsikszentmihalyi’s
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi has defined creativity in terms of those individuals judged to have made significant creative, perhaps domain-changing contributions.
Csikszentmihalyi is noted for his work in the study of happiness and creativity, but is best known as the architect of the notion of flow and for his years of research and writing on the topic.

Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

Torrance Test of Creative Thinking AbilityTTCT
Building on Guilford's work, Torrance developed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking in 1966.
The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking is a test of creativity.

Alfred North Whitehead

WhiteheadA. N. WhiteheadAlfred Whitehead
In 1927, Alfred North Whitehead gave the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh, later published as Process and Reality. He is credited with having coined the term "creativity" to serve as the ultimate category of his metaphysical scheme: "Whitehead actually coined the term – our term, still the preferred currency of exchange among literature, science, and the arts. . . a term that quickly became so popular, so omnipresent, that its invention within living memory, and by Alfred North Whitehead of all people, quickly became occluded".
For Whitehead, creativity is the absolute principle of existence, and every entity (whether it is a human being, a tree, or an electron) has some degree of novelty in how it responds to other entities, and is not fully determined by causal or mechanistic laws.

William Duff (writer)

William Duff
In the writing of Thomas Hobbes, imagination became a key element of human cognition; William Duff was one of the first to identify imagination as a quality of genius, typifying the separation being made between talent (productive, but breaking no new ground) and genius.
His Essay on Original Genius is frequently cited as a landmark in the Western analysis of genius and creativity.

Creative problem-solving

creative problem solvingCreative Problem Solving ProcessCreative Problem Solving Process (CPS)
Incubation is a temporary break from creative problem solving that can result in insight.
Creativity

Convergent thinking

convergentConvergent productionresolve
J. P. Guilford drew a distinction between convergent and divergent production (commonly renamed convergent and divergent thinking).
Examples of divergent thinking include using brainstorming, free writing and creative thinking at the beginning of the problem solving process to generate possible solutions that can be evaluated later.

Latent inhibition

LLIlow latent inhibitioninhibition
High dopamine levels increase general arousal and goal directed behaviors and reduce latent inhibition, and all three effects increase the drive to generate ideas.
It does mean, however, that the higher quantity of incoming information requires a mind capable of handling it. Those of above average intelligence are thought to be capable of processing this stream effectively, enabling their creativity and increasing their awareness of their surroundings.

James C. Kaufman

James C. Kaufman and Beghetto introduced a "four C" model of creativity; mini-c ("transformative learning" involving "personally meaningful interpretations of experiences, actions, and insights"), little-c (everyday problem solving and creative expression), Pro-C (exhibited by people who are professionally or vocationally creative though not necessarily eminent) and Big-C (creativity considered great in the given field).
He is a prolific researcher and editor who is best known for his theoretical contributions to the study of creativity.

Triarchic theory of intelligence

Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Testtheory of intelligence
Sternberg’s Theory of Successful intelligence (see Triarchic theory of intelligence) includes creativity as a main component, and comprises 3 sub-theories: Componential (Analytic), Contextual (Practical), and Experiential (Creative). Experiential sub-theory – the ability to use pre-existing knowledge and skills to solve new and novel problems – is directly related to creativity.
Synthetic giftedness is seen in creativity, intuition, and a study of the arts.

James Melvin Rhodes

Mel Rhodes
The dominant factors are usually identified as "the four Ps" — process, product, person, and place (according to Mel Rhodes).
Rhodes is noted for his pioneering work in the early study and research of Creativity and is best known as the architect of the framework of the 4 Ps of creativity and its implication specifically for the field of applied creativity.

The Act of Creation

bisociationcreativity
In The Act of Creation, Arthur Koestler introduced the concept of bisociation — that creativity arises as a result of the intersection of two quite different frames of reference.
Creativity

Artist

artistspainterartiste
In Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament, Kay Redfield Jamison summarizes studies of mood-disorder rates in writers, poets, and artists.
The word is also used in a qualitative sense of, a person creative in, innovative in, or adept at, an artistic practice.

Originality

originaloriginal workoriginals
In business, originality is not enough.
The term "originality" is often applied as a compliment to the creativity of artists, writers, and thinkers.