Nēhiyaw camp near Vermilion, Alberta, in 1871
Cree language.
Cree Indian, taken by G. E. Fleming, 1903
Map of Nitaskinan
Location of Eeyou Istchee within Québec
Montana Indian Reservations
Hudson Bay Cree use decoction.
Mähsette Kuiuab, chief of the Cree, 1840–1843, Karl Bodmer.
Buffy Sainte-Marie, Cree singer-songwriter, performing in Norway, 2012.
Group of Cree people
Merasty women and girls, Cree, The Pas, Manitoba, 1942
Chief King of the Wind
Chief Thundercloud
Chief Duckhunter
Nehiyaw girl (1928)

The Cree (Néhinaw, Néhiyaw, etc.; Cri) are a North American Indigenous people.

- Cree

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Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, part of the Nord-du-Québec region and nearly coterminous with Kativik.

Proposed Nunavik flag
Villages in Nunavik.

Almost all of the 13,181 inhabitants (2016 census) of the region, of whom 90% are Inuit, live in fourteen northern villages on the coast of Nunavik and in the Cree reserved land (TC) of Whapmagoostui, near the northern village of Kuujjuarapik.


The Innu / Ilnu ("man", "person") or Innut / Innuat / Ilnuatsh ("people"), formerly called Montagnais from the French colonial period (French for "mountain people", English pronunciation: ), are the Indigenous inhabitants of territory in the northeastern portion of the present-day province of Quebec and some eastern portions of Labrador.

Lands traditionally inhabited by the Innu. Naskapi land is shown in yellow and Montagnais land in red
Reindeer hunting in Labrador
Roman Catholic procession of First Nations people in the Labrador peninsula
"Buckle up your children" sign in Innu-aimun language, in the Pointe-Parent reserve near Natasquan, Quebec.

Some of the families of the Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach have close relatives in the Cree village of Whapmagoostui, on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay.


Province of Canada at the longitudinal centre of the country.

Territorial evolution of Canada, 1867–present
Crowds gathering outside the old City Hall during the Winnipeg general strike, 21 June 1919
Aerial view of the Red River Floodway
Relief map of Manitoba
Deep Lake at Riding Mountain National Park
Köppen climate types of Manitoba
Polar bears are common in northern Manitoba.
Red River cart train
The Manitoba Legislative Building, meeting place of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
Union Station
Centennial Concert Hall in Winnipeg
Author Margaret Laurence's home in Neepawa
The Morden Corn and Apple Festival
Assiniboine Park Pavilion
The Winnipeg Jets celebrate their first regulation win in Winnipeg at the MTS Centre on 17 October 2011

The Ojibwe, Cree, Dene, Sioux, Mandan, and Assiniboine peoples founded settlements, and other tribes entered the area to trade.


"Nascaupee" native American by Frank Weston Benson (1921)
Naskapi women, wearing woolen and deerskin clothing, 1908

The Naskapi (Nascapi, Naskapee, Nascapee) are a Cree ethnic group and people native to the historical country St'aschinuw (ᒋᑦ ᐊᔅᒋᓄᐤ, meaning 'our [inclusive] land'), which is located in northern Quebec and Labrador, neighbouring Nunavik.

Hudson Bay

Large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of 1230000 km2.

Hudson Bay, Canada
Hudson Bay drainage basin
Canada, routes of explorers, 1497 to 1905
Map including Hudson Bay
Polar bear walks on newly formed ice in early November at Hudson Bay.
In late spring (May), large chunks of ice float near the eastern shore of the bay, while the centre of the bay remains frozen to the west. Between 1971 and 2007, the length of the ice-free season increased by about seven days in the southwestern part of the Hudson Bay, historically the last area to thaw.
Map of post-glacial rebound. Hudson Bay is in the region of the most rapid uplift.
The Arctic Bridge shipping route (blue line) is hoped to link North America to markets in Europe and Asia using ice-free routes across the Arctic Ocean

Lake Winnipeg is similarly named by the local Cree, as is the location for the city of Winnipeg.


The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people ( when singular, Assiniboines / Assiniboins when plural; Ojibwe: Asiniibwaan, "stone Sioux"; also in plural Assiniboine or Assiniboin), also known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota (or Nakoda or Nakona), are a First Nations/Native American people originally from the Northern Great Plains of North America.

Assiniboine 1851 treaty territory. (Area 300)
Assiniboine Hunting Buffalo, 1851
Hunting. Made by an Assiniboine.
Assiniboine Family, Montana, 1890–1891
Pigeon's Egg Head, painted by George Catlin
A 1900 map showing the boundaries of the District of Assiniboia
Two young Assiniboine boys
A skin lodge of an Assiniboine chief
Tomb platforms of Assiniboine in trees
Assiniboine in Montana, 1890–1891
An Assiniboine man named Cloud Man
Assiniboine baby carrier
Two Assiniboine warriors, painted by Karl Bodmer
Black Eagle, Assiniboine man, 1908 photo by Edward Sheriff Curtis
Mounted Assiniboine warrior attacking a Blackfoot. Made by an Assiniboine
Victory dance of the Assiniboine. Made by an Assiniboine at Fort Union

They were well known throughout much of the late 18th and early 19th century, and were members of the Iron Confederacy with the Cree.

Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation

One of seven Native American reservations in the U.S. state of Montana.

General view of buildings at Rocky Boy Indian Reservation, 1936
Chief Ahsiniiwin (Rocky Boy)

It was established for landless Chippewa (Ojibwe) Indians in the American West, but within a short period of time many Cree (Nēhiyaw) and Métis were also settled there.

North American fur trade

The North American fur trade refers to the commercial trade in furs in North America.

An illustration of European and indigenous fur traders in North America, 1777
Fur cleaning tools
Map of New France (Champlain, 1612)
Map of French and British North American possessions in the early 18th century. Note French expansion into Lake Winnipeg and British control of Hudson Bay, both prime fur-producing areas.

The Wendat homeland, Wendake, lies in what is now southern Ontario being bordered on three sides by Lake Ontario, Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay, and it was through Wendake that the Ojibwe and Cree who lived further north traded with the French.

Moose Factory

Community in the Cochrane District, Ontario, Canada.

Moose Fort was known as Fort St Louis after its capture by de Troyes; it was recaptured by the British in 1696
Moose Factory 1854
Polar Bear Express train
Cree Eco Lodge dining room
Centennial Park - foreground: historic cemetery; background (from left to right): blacksmith shop, McLeod House, Sackabuckiskum House, Powder magazine.
Hudson's Bay Company staff house
Weeneebayko General Hospital

The settlement is mainly inhabited by the Cree, but the hospital that provides healthcare services to the people of the island and surrounding area (collectively known as the Weeneebayko Area Health Authority) employs a diverse group of people.


The Atikamekw are the Indigenous inhabitants of the subnational country or territory they call Nitaskinan ('Our Land'), in the upper Saint-Maurice River valley of Quebec (about 300 km north of Montreal), Canada.

Constant Awashish is the Chief of the Atikamekw Nation since 2014.
Members of the Atikamekw Nation from the Manawan community, circa 1900.

They were described as a peaceful people, sharing the region with the Innu (Montagnais) in the east, the Cree in the north, and Algonquin to the south.