Creodonta

creodontcreodontscreodine
Creodonta is an extinct, possibly polyphyletic order of carnivorous mammals that lived from the Paleocene to the Miocene epochs.wikipedia
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Oxyaenidae

oxyaenidoxyaenids
Two distinct families were historically thought to compose the order: Oxyaenidae and Hyaenodontidae. he expanded the term to include Miacidae, Arctocyonidae, Leptictidae (now Pseudorhyncocyonidae), Oxyaenidae, Ambloctonidae and Mesonychidae.
Traditionally classified in Creodonta, this group may be related to pangolins.

Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian
Creodonta is an extinct, possibly polyphyletic order of carnivorous mammals that lived from the Paleocene to the Miocene epochs.

Hyaenodontidae

hyaenodontidhyaenodontshyaenodontids
Two distinct families were historically thought to compose the order: Oxyaenidae and Hyaenodontidae.
They were considerably more widespread and successful than the oxyaenids, the other clade historically considered part of Creodonta.

Carnivoramorpha

CarnivoraformescarnivoramorphsCarnivoramorph
They may both represent separate orders of fossil mammals related to carnivoramorphs or are descended from more basal taxa.

Arctocyonidae

arctocyonidsarctocyonidArctocyoninae
he expanded the term to include Miacidae, Arctocyonidae, Leptictidae (now Pseudorhyncocyonidae), Oxyaenidae, Ambloctonidae and Mesonychidae.
Arctocyonids were early defined as a family of creodonts (early predators), then reassigned to the condylarths (primitive plant-eaters, now understood as a wastebasket taxon).

Paleocene

PalaeoceneLate PaleocenePaleocene epoch
Creodonta is an extinct, possibly polyphyletic order of carnivorous mammals that lived from the Paleocene to the Miocene epochs.
Other ambiguous orders include the Leptictida, Cimolesta, and Creodonta.

Carnivora

carnivorescarnivorancarnivorans
Because they both possess carnassial teeth, creodonts and carnivorans were once thought to have shared a common ancestor, but given that different teeth are involved in making up the carnassials (both between creodonts and carnivorans and between the main groups of creodonts), this appears to be a case of evolutionary convergence.
Based on dental features and braincase sizes, it is now known that Carnivora must have evolved from a form even more primitive than Creodonta, and thus these two orders may not even be sister groups.

Oligocene

Late OligoceneOligocene epochEarly Oligocene
In Oligocene Africa, they were the dominant predatory group.
Brontotheres died out in the Earliest Oligocene, and creodonts died out outside Africa and the Middle East at the end of the period.

Entelodont

Entelodontidaeentelodontsenteldonts
They competed with the Mesonychids and the Entelodonts and ultimately outlasted them by the start of the Oligocene and by the middle of the Miocene respectively, but lost ground to the carnivorans.
Other animals in their environments filled apex predator niches, including cat-like nimravid sabertooths, amphicyonids (bear-dogs), and hyaenodontid creodonts.

Mesonychidae

mesonychidmesonychids
he expanded the term to include Miacidae, Arctocyonidae, Leptictidae (now Pseudorhyncocyonidae), Oxyaenidae, Ambloctonidae and Mesonychidae.
Since other carnivores such as the creodonts and Carnivora were either rare or absent in these animal communities, mesonychids most likely dominated the large predator niche in the Paleocene of Asia.

Sarkastodon

Creodonts ranged in size from the size of a small cat to the 800 kg Sarkastodon.
Sarkastodon, like creodonts in general, was probably a hypercarnivore that preyed on large mammals in its range during the Late Eocene, such as brontotheres, chalicotheres, and rhinoceroses.

Pangolin

ManidaePholidotapangolins
However, a phylogenetic analysis of Paleocene mammals published in 2015 supported the monophyly of Creodonta, and placed the group as relatives of pangolins.
A 2015 study has supported close affinities between pangolins and the extinct group Creodonta, as well as many former cimolestans (Cimolestes itself was recovered as a far more basal mammal).

Cenozoic

Cenozoic EraCainozoicAge of Mammals
Their origins may lie at least as far back as the late Cretaceous, depending on placental genetic calibration methods, though they did not radiate much until the Cenozoic.
Archaic mammals filled the world such as creodonts (extinct carnivores, unrelated to existing Carnivora).

Carnassial

carnassialscarnassial teeth carnassials or sectorial
Because they both possess carnassial teeth, creodonts and carnivorans were once thought to have shared a common ancestor, but given that different teeth are involved in making up the carnassials (both between creodonts and carnivorans and between the main groups of creodonts), this appears to be a case of evolutionary convergence.
Creodonts have two or three pairs of carnassial teeth, but only one pair performed the cutting function: either M1/m2 or M2/m3, depending on the family.

Mesonychid

MesonychiaMesonychidsmesonychian
They competed with the Mesonychids and the Entelodonts and ultimately outlasted them by the start of the Oligocene and by the middle of the Miocene respectively, but lost ground to the carnivorans.
Since other predators, such as creodonts and Carnivora, were either rare or absent in these animal communities, mesonychids most likely dominated the large predator niche in the Paleocene of Eastern Asia.

Hyaenodonta

hyaenodonthyaenodontshyaenodontid
Hyaenodonta (sometimes referred as "Hyaenodontida" ) is an extinct group of hypercarnivorous eutherian mammals, originally classified along with the oxyaenids as part of Creodonta.

Laurasiatheria

laurasiathereLaurasiatherescows
More recently, "Creodonta" had been considered to be a polyphyletic assemblage of mammals, not a natural group, with Oxyaenids being considered basal laurasiatheres.

Extinction

extinctspecies extinction
Creodonta is an extinct, possibly polyphyletic order of carnivorous mammals that lived from the Paleocene to the Miocene epochs.

Order (biology)

ordersuborderorders
Creodonta is an extinct, possibly polyphyletic order of carnivorous mammals that lived from the Paleocene to the Miocene epochs.

Miocene

Late MioceneEarly MioceneMiddle Miocene
Creodonta is an extinct, possibly polyphyletic order of carnivorous mammals that lived from the Paleocene to the Miocene epochs. They competed with the Mesonychids and the Entelodonts and ultimately outlasted them by the start of the Oligocene and by the middle of the Miocene respectively, but lost ground to the carnivorans.

Bat

batsChiropterachiropteran
Carnassials are also known in other mammal clades, such as in the extinct bat Necromantis.

Necromantis

?Necromantis fragmentum
Carnassials are also known in other mammal clades, such as in the extinct bat Necromantis.

Edward Drinker Cope

CopeCope EDCope, E.D.
"Creodonta" was coined by Edward Drinker Cope in 1875.

Viverravidae

viverravidviverravidsViverravoidea
Cope included the oxyaenids and the viverravid Didymictis but omitted the hyaenodontids.

Didymictis

Cope included the oxyaenids and the viverravid Didymictis but omitted the hyaenodontids.