Crime

criminalcriminalscriminal offencecriminalitycrimesfoul playoffencecriminal offenseoffenderoffense
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.wikipedia
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Criminal law

criminalcriminal casepenal law
The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

Criminal code

penal codec.pc.p.
While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists.
Typically a criminal code will contain offences which are recognised in the jurisdiction, penalties which might be imposed for these offences and some general provisions (such as definitions and prohibitions on retroactive prosecution).

Theft

thiefthievesstealing
The notion that acts such as murder, rape, and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide.
The word is also used as an informal shorthand term for some crimes against property, such as burglary, embezzlement, larceny, looting, robbery, shoplifting, library theft, and fraud (obtaining money under false pretenses).

Life imprisonment

life sentencelife in prisonlife
If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, whole-life tariff, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled or otherwise commuted to a fixed term.

Guilt (law)

guiltyguiltguilty verdict
If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
Being "guilty" of a criminal offense means that one has committed a violation of criminal law, or performed all the elements of the offense set out by a criminal statute.

Mens rea

intentmental statemental element
Usually, to be classified as a crime, the "act of doing something criminal" (actus reus) must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the "intention to do something criminal" (mens rea).
It is a necessary element of many crimes.

Tort

tort lawtortstortfeasor
Breaches of private law (torts and breaches of contract) are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure.
Tort law, a suite where the purpose of a legal action is to obtain a private civil remedy such as damages, may be compared to criminal law, which deals with criminal wrongs that are punishable by the state.

Crime prevention

preventionsituational crime preventionpreventing crime
Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, and implement other policies and practices that legislators or administrators have prescribed with the aim of discouraging or preventing crime.
Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals.

Criminal justice

criminal justice systemcriminalcriminal court
In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, and collectively these constitute a criminal justice system.
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.

Murder

first-degree murderfirst degree murdersecond-degree murder
The notion that acts such as murder, rape, and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide.
This is the crime of wrongfully and intentionally causing the death of another human being (also known as murder) after rationally considering the timing or method of doing so, in order to either increase the likelihood of success, or to evade detection or apprehension.

Violation of law

violationviolationsLaw violation
While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime.
Violations generally include both crimes and civil wrongs.

Capital punishment

death penaltyexecutionexecuted
If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth.

Convict

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Legal sanctions vary widely in their severity; they may include (for example) incarceration of temporary character aimed at reforming the convict.
A convict is "a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison".

Sentence (law)

sentencesentencedsentencing
If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
The sentence can generally involve a decree of imprisonment, a fine, and/or punishments against a defendant convicted of a crime.

Wrongdoing

wrongwrongful actfalse
One proposed definition is that a crime or offence (or criminal offence) is an act harmful not only to some individual but also to a community, society, or the state ("a public wrong").
They can be divided into civil wrongs and crimes (or criminal offences) in common law countries, while civil law countries tend to have some additional categories, such as contraventions.

Indictment

indictedindictindictments
In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, indictment, accusation; crime, fault, offense".
An indictment is a criminal accusation that a person has committed a crime.

Criminal charge

chargedchargecharges
In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, indictment, accusation; crime, fault, offense". Originally the Latin word crīmen meant "charge" or "cry of distress."
A criminal charge is a formal accusation made by a governmental authority (usually a public prosecutor or the police) asserting that somebody has committed a crime.

Police

policingpolice forcepolice department
This approach considers the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime and seeks to understand how changing social, political, psychological, and economic conditions may affect changing definitions of crime and the form of the legal, law-enforcement, and penal responses made by society.
The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives, liberty and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.

Deviance (sociology)

deviancedeviantdeviant behavior
A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms – cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave normally.
In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule (e.g., crime), as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores).

Civil procedure

civilCode of Civil ProcedureCivil procedure law
Breaches of private law (torts and breaches of contract) are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure.
But the victim of the crime generally pursues his claim for compensation in a civil, not a criminal, action.

Decriminalization

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For example: as cultures change and the political environment shifts, societies may criminalise or decriminalise certain behaviours, which directly affects the statistical crime rates, influence the allocation of resources for the enforcement of laws, and (re-)influence the general public opinion.
Decriminalization or decriminalisation is the lessening of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts, perhaps retroactively, though perhaps regulated permits or fines might still apply (for contrast, see: legalization).

English criminal law

criminal lawcriminalcrime
English criminal law and the related criminal law of Commonwealth countries can define offences that the courts alone have developed over the years, without any actual legislation: common law offences.
English criminal law concerns offences, their prevention and the consequences, in England and Wales.

Imprisonment

incarcerationIncarceratedimprisoned
If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
Criminals and army soldiers have been imprisoned throughout history.

Nonperson

non-personRetouched photo with Stalin and Nikolai Yezhovunperson
Conversely, at least under U.S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes.
"Nonperson" status was required because it removed the moral and social obstacles for committing otherwise objectionable acts of violence, crime, abuse, and murder.

Criminal accusation

accusationaccusedaccusations
In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, indictment, accusation; crime, fault, offense".
A criminal accusation is the process of declaring one's belief in another's liability for that other's criminal action(s).