A report on Crime

The spiked heads of executed criminals once adorned the gatehouse of the medieval London Bridge.
Kang Kek Iew before the Cambodian Genocide Tribunal on July 20, 2009
Religious sentiment often becomes a contributory factor of crime. In the 1819 anti-Jewish Hep-Hep riots in Würzburg, rioters attacked Jewish businesses and destroyed property.

Unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

- Crime
The spiked heads of executed criminals once adorned the gatehouse of the medieval London Bridge.

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Criminology

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Cesare Beccaria

Criminology (from Latin crimen, "accusation", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logia, from λόγος logos meaning: "word, reason") is the study of crime and deviant behaviour.

The Old Bailey in London (in 1808) was the venue for more than 100,000 criminal trials between 1674 and 1834, including all death penalty cases.

Criminal law

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The Old Bailey in London (in 1808) was the venue for more than 100,000 criminal trials between 1674 and 1834, including all death penalty cases.
An English court room in 1886, with Lord Chief Justice Coleridge presiding
International Criminal Court in The Hague

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

Anarchist Auguste Vaillant about to be guillotined in France in 1894

Capital punishment

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Anarchist Auguste Vaillant about to be guillotined in France in 1894
The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1883). Roman Circus Maximus.
Beheading of John the Baptist, woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, 1860
The Death of Socrates (1787), in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
The breaking wheel was used during the Middle Ages and was still in use into the 19th century.
The burning of Jakob Rohrbach, a leader of the peasants during the German Peasants' War.
Antiporta of Dei delitti e delle pene (On Crimes and Punishments), 1766 ed.
Mexican execution by firing squad, 1916
50 Poles tried and sentenced to death by a Standgericht in retaliation for the assassination of 1 German policeman in Nazi-occupied Poland, 1944
Emperor Shomu banned the death penalty in Japan in 724.
Peter Leopold II abolished the death penalty throughout Tuscany in 1786, making it the first nation in modern history to do so.
Mother Catherine Cauchés (center) and her two daughters Guillemine Gilbert (left) and Perotine Massey (right) with her infant son burning for heresy
The Red Guard prisoners are being executed by the Whites in Varkaus, North Savonia, during the 1918 Finnish Civil War.
A sign at the Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport warns arriving travelers that drug trafficking is a capital crime in the Republic of China (photo taken in 2005)
Execution of a war criminal in Germany in 1946
A gurney at San Quentin State Prison in California formerly used for executions by lethal injection
Capital punishment was abolished in the United Kingdom in part because of the case of Timothy Evans, who was executed in 1950 after being wrongfully convicted of two murders that had in fact been committed by his landlord, John Christie. The case was considered vital in bolstering opposition, which limited the scope of the penalty in 1957 and abolished it completely, for murder, in 1965.
Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms the prohibition on capital punishment in the EU
Signatories to the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR: parties in dark green, signatories in light green, non-members in grey
Abolitionist countries: 109	
Abolitionist-in-law countries for all crimes except those committed under exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in wartime): 7	
Abolitionist-in-practice countries (have not executed anyone during the past 10 years or more and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions): 25
Retentionist countries: 54
Number of abolitionist and retentionist countries by year
Number of retentionist countries
Number of abolitionist countries
A map showing U.S. states where the death penalty is authorized for certain crimes, even if not recently used. The death penalty is also authorized for certain federal and military crimes.
States with a valid death penalty statute
States without the death penalty
Same-sex intercourse illegal: Death penalty for homosexuality
Death penalty in legislation, but not applied

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a state-sanctioned practice of killing a person as a punishment for a crime.

United States criminal justice system flowchart

Criminal justice

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United States criminal justice system flowchart
This image shows the procedure in the criminal justice system
A trial at the Old Bailey in London, c. 1808
The Huntsville Unit of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice in Huntsville, Texas is a prison, a component of a corrections system
Qur'anic education for offenders at the Central Jail Faisalabad in Faisalabad, Pakistan
Prisoners at a whipping post in a Delaware prison, c. 1907

Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have been accused of committing crimes.

Murder in the House by Jakub Schikaneder

Murder

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Unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought.

Unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought.

Murder in the House by Jakub Schikaneder
Aaron Alexis holding a shotgun during his rampage
A group of Thugs strangling a traveller on a highway in the early 19th century.
International murder rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 2011
UNODC : Per 100,000 population (2011)
Lake Bodom murders in Espoo, Finland is the most famous unsolved homicide cases in Finnish criminal history. The tent is investigated immediately after the murders in 1960.
The scene of a murder in Rio de Janeiro. More than 800,000 people were murdered in Brazil between 1980 and 2004.
Intentional homicide rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 2009
The historical homicide rate in Stockholm since 1400 AD. The murder rate was very high in the Middle Ages. The rate has declined greatly: from 45/100,000 to a low of 0.6 in the 1950s. The last decades have seen the homicide rate rise slowly.

This is the crime of wrongfully and intentionally causing the death of another human being (also known as murder) after rationally considering the timing or method of doing so, in order to either increase the likelihood of success, or to evade detection or apprehension.

1856 lithograph of the caning of Charles Sumner

Assault

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Act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.

Act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.

1856 lithograph of the caning of Charles Sumner

It is both a crime and a tort and, therefore, may result in criminal prosecution, civil liability, or both.

Marauders attacking a group of travellers, by Jacques Courtois

Robbery

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Marauders attacking a group of travellers, by Jacques Courtois
"The Eveleigh Payroll Heist" in 1914 was committed in the middle of the day in a busy area, and has been reported to be the first robbery in Australia where a getaway car was used.

Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by use of fear.

The Old Bailey, set on the old fortifications of the London wall, hears Crown Court trials for London. The statute of Lady Justice is meant to symbolise fairness and impartiality.

English criminal law

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The Old Bailey, set on the old fortifications of the London wall, hears Crown Court trials for London. The statute of Lady Justice is meant to symbolise fairness and impartiality.
An English court room in 1886, with Lord Chief Justice Coleridge presiding
William Hogarth's A Rake's Progress, depicting the world's oldest psychiatric hospital, Bethlem Hospital
Sketch of the Mignonette by Tom Dudley from R v Dudley and Stephens
The architecture of the new International Criminal Court in The Hague

English criminal law concerns offences, their prevention and the consequences, in England and Wales.

Conspiracy (criminal)

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Agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime at some time in the future.

Agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime at some time in the future.

Criminal law in some countries or for some conspiracies may require that at least one overt act be undertaken in furtherance of that agreement, to constitute an offense.

Sentence (law)

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In law, a sentence is the punishment for a crime ordered by a trial court after conviction in a criminal procedure, normally at the conclusion of a trial.