Crimean War

CrimeaCrimea WarCrimeanRussian WarThe Crimean WarCrimean campaignBalticBaltic theatre of the Crimean WarBaltic Campaign of 1854war
The Crimean War (Guerre de Crimée; Кры́мская война́ or Восто́чная война́; Kırım Savaşı; Guerra di Crimea) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.wikipedia
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Napoleon III

Napoléon IIILouis NapoleonNapoleon III of France
While the churches worked out their differences and came to an agreement, Nicholas I of Russia and the French Emperor Napoleon III refused to back down.
He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the overseas empire, and engaged in the Crimean War and the Second Italian War of Independence.

Omar Pasha

Omer PashaOmar Pasha LatasOmar
Led by Omar Pasha, the Ottomans fought a strong defensive campaign and stopped the advance at Silistra.
Latas crushed several rebellions throughout the Empire, and was a commander in the Crimean War, where he won some outstanding victories at Silistra and Eupatoria and participated in the siege of Sevastopol.

Battle of Sinop

SinopBattle of SinopeSinope
A separate action on the fort town of Kars in eastern Anatolia led to a siege, and a Turkish attempt to reinforce the garrison was destroyed by a Russian fleet at Sinop.
The Battle of Sinop, or the Battle of Sinope, was a Russian naval victory over the Ottoman Empire during the Crimean War that took place on 30 November 1853 at Sinop, a sea port in northern Anatolia, when a squadron of Imperial Russian warships struck and defeated a squadron of Ottoman ships anchored in the harbor.

Battle of Inkerman

InkermanBattle of InkermannInkermann
A second counterattack, at Inkerman, ended in stalemate.
The Battle of Inkerman was fought during the Crimean War on 5 November 1854 between the allied armies of Britain, France and Ottoman Empire against the Imperial Russian Army.

Treaty of Paris (1856)

Treaty of Paris1856 Treaty of ParisPeace of Paris
The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856, ended the war.
The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Kingdom of Sardinia

SardiniaPiedmont-SardiniaKingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
The Crimean War (Guerre de Crimée; Кры́мская война́ or Восто́чная война́; Kırım Savaşı; Guerra di Crimea) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
By the time of the Crimean War in 1853, the Savoyards had built the kingdom into a strong power.

Florence Nightingale

NightingaleFlorenceFrances Smith
The reaction in Britain was a demand for professionalisation, most famously achieved by Florence Nightingale, who gained worldwide attention for pioneering modern nursing while treating the wounded.
Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers.

Charge of the Light Brigade

The Charge of the Light BrigadeLight Brigadean ill-advised charge
As the legend of the "Charge of the Light Brigade" demonstrates, the war quickly became an iconic symbol of logistical, medical and tactical failures and mismanagement.
The Charge of the Light Brigade was a failed military action involving the British light cavalry led by Lord Cardigan against Russian forces during the Battle of Balaclava on 25 October 1854 in the Crimean War.

History of the foreign relations of the United Kingdom

foreign policyBritishHistory
In the 1850s, the British and the French, who were allied with the Ottoman Empire, were determined not to allow this to happen.
Although all of the other great powers fought with their neighbours, the British Army had only one relatively limited war (the Crimean War against the Russian Empire in 1854–56).

Holy Land

the Holy LandHoly LandsHoliness of Palestine
The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire.
In the 19th century, the Holy Land became the subject of diplomatic wrangling as the Holy Places played a role in the Eastern Question which led to the Crimean War in the 1850s.

Second French Empire

Second EmpireFranceFrench Empire
The Crimean War (Guerre de Crimée; Кры́мская война́ or Восто́чная война́; Kırım Savaşı; Guerra di Crimea) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Crimean War ended in 1856, a victory for Napoleon III and a resulting peace that excluded Russia from the Black Sea.

Status Quo (Jerusalem and Bethlehem)

Status QuoStatus quo of Holy Land sitescame to an agreement
While the churches worked out their differences and came to an agreement, Nicholas I of Russia and the French Emperor Napoleon III refused to back down.
In the years preceding the Crimean War, Napoleon III of France pressured the Sultan to invalidate the 1757 status quo, but Nicholas I of Russia threatened to invade Turkey if this occurred.

Shell (projectile)

shellshellsartillery shell
The Crimean War was one of the first conflicts in which the military used modern technologies such as explosive naval shells, railways, and telegraphs.
After the British artillery was shown up in the Crimean War as having barely changed since the Napoleonic Wars, the industrialist William Armstrong was awarded a contract by the government to design a new piece of artillery.

Russian Empire

RussiaImperial RussiaRussian
The Crimean War (Guerre de Crimée; Кры́мская война́ or Восто́чная война́; Kırım Savaşı; Guerra di Crimea) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
In 1854–55 Russia lost to Britain, France and Turkey in the Crimean War, which was fought primarily in the Crimean peninsula, and to a lesser extent in the Baltic.

Sick man of Europe

inevitabilitysick mandecaying Ottoman Empire
Russia had assisted Austria's efforts in suppressing the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, and expected gratitude; it wanted a free hand in settling its problems with the Ottoman Empire, the "sick man of Europe".
John Russell in 1853, in the run up to the Crimean War, quotes Nicholas I of Russia describing the Ottoman Empire as "a sick man—a very sick man", a "man" who "has fallen into a state of decrepitude", or a "sick man ... gravely ill".

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
The Crimean War (Guerre de Crimée; Кры́мская война́ or Восто́чная война́; Kırım Savaşı; Guerra di Crimea) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Crimean War (1853–1856) was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire.

Kars

A separate action on the fort town of Kars in eastern Anatolia led to a siege, and a Turkish attempt to reinforce the garrison was destroyed by a Russian fleet at Sinop.
During the Crimean War an Ottoman garrison led by British officers including General William Fenwick Williams kept the Russians at bay during a protracted siege; but after the garrison had been devastated by cholera and food supplies had depleted, the town was surrendered to General Mouravieff in November 1855.

Varna

Varna, BulgariaOdessosOdessus
They then moved north to Varna in June 1854, arriving just in time for the Russians to abandon Silistra.
The British and French campaigning against Russia in the Crimean War (1854–1856) used Varna as headquarters and principal naval base; many soldiers died of cholera and the city was devastated by a fire.

War photography

war photographercombat photographerphotographer
The war was one of the first to be documented extensively in written reports and photographs.
The Hungarian–Romanian Károly Szathmáry Papp took photographs of various officers in 1853 and of war scenes near Olteniţa and Silistra in 1854, during the Crimean War.

Holy Alliance

Grand Alliance (1815)reactionary Northern courtsTreaty denominated of the Holy Alliance
Russia, as a member of the Holy Alliance, had operated as the "police of Europe", maintaining the balance of power that had been established in the Treaty of Vienna in 1815.
The alliance aimed to restrain liberalism and secularism in Europe in the wake of the devastating French Revolutionary Wars, and it nominally succeeded in this until the Crimean War (1853–1856).

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen

Lord AberdeenEarl of AberdeenThe Earl of Aberdeen
In February 1853, the British government of Lord Aberdeen, the prime minister, re-appointed Stratford Canning as British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire.
Despite his trying to avoid this happening, it took Britain into the Crimean War, and fell when its conduct became unpopular, after which Aberdeen retired from politics.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
The Crimean War (Guerre de Crimée; Кры́мская война́ or Восто́чная война́; Kırım Savaşı; Guerra di Crimea) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The ensuing Crimean War (1854–56), which involved new techniques of modern warfare, was the only global war fought between Britain and another imperial power during the Pax Britannica and was a resounding defeat for Russia.

Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov

Mikhail GorchakovPrince Michael GorchakovPrince Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov
Shortly after he learned of the failure of Menshikov's diplomacy toward the end of June 1853, the Tsar sent armies under the commands of Field Marshal Ivan Paskevich and General Mikhail Gorchakov across the River Pruth into the Ottoman-controlled Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov (Михаи́л Дми́триевич Горчако́в; 28 January 1793 – 18 May 1861, Warsaw) was a Russian General of the Artillery from the Gorchakov family, who commanded the Russian forces in the latter stages of the Crimean War and later served as a Namestnik of Kingdom of Poland from 1856 until his death.

Hugh Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn

Sir Hugh RoseHugh RoseGeneral Hugh Rose
Having resigned the ambassadorship in January, he had been replaced by Colonel Rose as chargé d'affaires.
He then fought with the French Army at the Battle of Alma, the Battle of Inkerman and at the Battle of Mamelon during the Crimean War.

Abdulmejid I

Abdülmecid IAbdülmecidAbd-ul-Mejid I
This gunboat diplomacy show of force, together with money, induced the Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid I to accept a new treaty, confirming France and the Roman Catholic Church's supreme authority over Catholic holy places, including the Church of the Nativity, previously held by the Greek Orthodox Church.
He tried to forge alliances with the major powers of Western Europe, namely the United Kingdom and France, who fought alongside the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War against Russia.