Criminal law

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Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.wikipedia
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Law

legallawslegal theory
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined.

Crime

criminalcriminalscriminal offence
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes.

Civil law (common law)

civilcivil lawcivil litigation
Criminal law varies according to jurisdiction, and differs from civil law, where emphasis is more on dispute resolution and victim compensation, rather than on punishment or rehabilitation.
In common law legal systems such as England and Wales and the United States, the term refers to non-criminal law.

Tort

tort lawtortstortfeasor
In Roman law, Gaius's Commentaries on the Twelve Tables also conflated the civil and criminal aspects, treating theft (furtum) as a tort.
Tort law, a suite where the purpose of a legal action is to obtain a private civil remedy such as damages, may be compared to criminal law, which deals with criminal wrongs that are punishable by the state.

Trespass

trespassingcriminal trespassUnlawful Entry
Assault and violent robbery were analogized to trespass as to property.
Trespass is an area of criminal law or tort law broadly divided into three groups: trespass to the person, trespass to chattels and trespass to land.

Furtum

actio furticontrectatiofurtum usus
In Roman law, Gaius's Commentaries on the Twelve Tables also conflated the civil and criminal aspects, treating theft (furtum) as a tort.
Furtum was a delict of Roman law comparable to the modern offence of theft (as it is usually translated) despite being a civil and not criminal wrong.

Private law

civil lawcivilprivate
The first civilizations generally did not distinguish between civil law and criminal law.
It is to be distinguished from public law, which deals with relationships between both natural and artificial persons (i.e., organizations) and the state, including regulatory statutes, penal law and other law that affects the public order.

Probation

Probation Serviceprobationaryprobationer
Government supervision may be imposed, including house arrest, and convicts may be required to conform to particularized guidelines as part of a parole or probation regimen.
Probation in criminal law is a period of supervision over an offender, ordered by the court instead of serving time in prison.

Punishment

punitivepunishpunishments
Criminal law varies according to jurisdiction, and differs from civil law, where emphasis is more on dispute resolution and victim compensation, rather than on punishment or rehabilitation. Criminal law includes the punishment and rehabilitation of people who violate such laws.
Punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behaviour that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable.

Strict liability

strictstrictly liableno-fault system
Some crimes – particularly modern regulatory offenses – require no more, and they are known as strict liability offenses (E.g. Under the Road traffic Act 1988 it is a strict liability offence to drive a vehicle with an alcohol concentration above the prescribed limit).
In criminal and civil law, strict liability is a standard of liability under which a person is legally responsible for the consequences flowing from an activity even in the absence of fault or criminal intent on the part of the defendant.

Common law

common-lawcourts of common lawcommon
Nevertheless, because of the potentially severe consequences of criminal conviction, judges at common law also sought proof of an intent to do some bad thing, the mens rea or guilty mind.
The common law, as applied in civil cases (as distinct from criminal cases), was devised as a means of compensating someone for wrongful acts known as torts, including both intentional torts and torts caused by negligence, and as developing the body of law recognizing and regulating contracts.

Criminal justice

criminal justice systemcriminalcriminal court
Criminal law is concerned with actions which are dangerous or harmful to society as a whole, in which prosecution is pursued not by an individual but rather by the state.

Actus reus

activitiescommissionevil-acting hand
Scholars label this the requirement of an actus reus or guilty act.
Actus reus, sometimes called the external element or the objective element of a crime, is the Latin term for the "guilty act" which, when proved beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with the mens rea, "guilty mind", produces criminal liability in the common law-based criminal law jurisdictions of England and Wales, Canada, Australia, India, Kenya, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, New Zealand, Scotland, Nigeria, Ghana, Ireland, Israel and the United States of America.

Recklessness (law)

recklessnessrecklessrecklessly
This is recklessness. For example, it might be sufficient to show that a defendant acted negligently, rather than intentionally or recklessly.
In criminal law and in the law of tort, recklessness may be defined as the state of mind where a person deliberately and unjustifiably pursues a course of action while consciously disregarding any risks flowing from such action.

Mens rea

intentmental statemental element
Nevertheless, because of the potentially severe consequences of criminal conviction, judges at common law also sought proof of an intent to do some bad thing, the mens rea or guilty mind.
As a general rule, someone who acted without mental fault is not liable in criminal law.

Intention in English law

intentionIntendingintend
A guilty mind means an intention to commit some wrongful act.
In English criminal law, intention is one of the types of mens rea (Latin for "guilty mind") that, when accompanied by an actus reus (Latin for "guilty act"), constitutes a crime.

Intention (criminal law)

intentspecific intentcriminal intent
For example, it might be sufficient to show that a defendant acted negligently, rather than intentionally or recklessly.
In criminal law, intent is a subjective state of mind that must accompany the acts of certain crimes to constitute a violation.

Eggshell skull

thin skull ruleeggshell skull ruleEggshell skull" rule
This is known as the thin skull rule.
The eggshell rule (or thin skull rule) is a well-established legal doctrine in common law, used in some tort law systems, with a similar doctrine applicable to criminal law.

Diminished responsibility

diminished capacitycapacity for rational thought had been diminishedDiminished capacity in United States law
Manslaughter (Culpable Homicide in Scotland) is a lesser variety of killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity.
In criminal law, diminished responsibility (or diminished capacity) is a potential defense by excuse by which defendants argue that although they broke the law, they should not be held fully criminally liable for doing so, as their mental functions were "diminished" or impaired.

Motive (law)

motivemotivescriminal motive
Intention under criminal law is separate from a person's motive (although motive does not exist in Scots law).
In criminal law, motive in itself is not an element of any given crime; however, the legal system typically allows motive to be proven to make plausible the accused's reasons for committing a crime, at least when those motives may be obscure or hard to identify with.

Alfonso de Castro

Alphonso de CastroAlphonsus of Castro
The special notion of criminal penalty, at least concerning Europe, arose in Spanish Late Scholasticism (see Alfonso de Castro), when the theological notion of God's penalty (poena aeterna) that was inflicted solely for a guilty mind, became transfused into canon law first and, finally, to secular criminal law.
In his works Castro attended himself, basically, to the defense of "true faith" through criminal law.

Justice

justequitycivil justice
The development of the state dispensing justice in a court clearly emerged in the eighteenth century when European countries began maintaining police services.
In criminal law, a sentence forms the final explicit act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function.

Absolute liability

absolute liability principleabsolute" liabilityabsolute-liability
In offenses of absolute liability, other than the prohibited act, it may not be necessary to show the act was intentional.
Absolute liability is a standard of legal liability found in tort and criminal law of various legal jurisdictions.

Conspiracy (criminal)

conspiracycriminal conspiracyconspiring
Some examples are aiding, abetting, conspiracy, and attempt.
In criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime at some time in the future.

Fraud

defraudfraudsterfraudulent
Fraud in the UK is a breach of the Fraud Act 2006 by false representation, by failure to disclose information or by abuse of position.
Fraud can violate civil law (i.e., a fraud victim may sue the fraud perpetrator to avoid the fraud or recover monetary compensation), a criminal law (i.e., a fraud perpetrator may be prosecuted and imprisoned by governmental authorities), or it may cause no loss of money, property or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong.