Crisis in Venezuela

crisis in Bolivarian VenezuelaVenezuelan crisisCrisis in Venezuela (2012–present)Venezuela's crisiscountry’s poor economic conditionscrisiseconomic crisisjoint report from Human Rights Watch and Johns Hopkinsrecent political instabilityCrisis in Venezuela (2010–present)
A socioeconomic and political crisis that began in Venezuela during the presidency of Hugo Chávez has continued into the presidency of Nicolás Maduro.wikipedia
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Hugo Chávez

ChávezHugo Chávez FríasHugo Chavez
A socioeconomic and political crisis that began in Venezuela during the presidency of Hugo Chávez has continued into the presidency of Nicolás Maduro.
On 2 June 2010, Chávez declared an "economic war" on Venezuela's upper classes due to shortages, arguably beginning the crisis in Venezuela.

Venezuela

VenezuelanBolivarian Republic of VenezuelaVEN
A socioeconomic and political crisis that began in Venezuela during the presidency of Hugo Chávez has continued into the presidency of Nicolás Maduro.
The destabilized economy led to a crisis in Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, poverty, disease, child mortality, malnutrition and crime.

Corruption in Venezuela

corruptioncorruption of the statePolitical corruption
Political corruption, chronic shortages of food and medicine, closure of companies, unemployment, deterioration of productivity, authoritarianism, human rights violations, gross economic mismanagement and high dependence on oil have also contributed to the worsening crisis.
The large amount of corruption and mismanagement in the country has resulted in severe economic difficulties, part of the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela.

Nicolás Maduro

Nicolas MaduroMaduroNicholas Maduro
A socioeconomic and political crisis that began in Venezuela during the presidency of Hugo Chávez has continued into the presidency of Nicolás Maduro.
Beginning six months after being elected, Maduro was given the power to rule by decree by the pre-2015 Venezuelan legislature (from 19 November 2013 to 19 November 2014, 15 March 2015 to 31 December 2015) and later by the Supreme Tribunal (since 15 January 2016) in order to address the ongoing economic crisis in the country, with strong condemnation by the Venezuelan opposition claiming that the legislature's power had been usurped by the court.

Lima Group

The Lima Group
In the months leading up to his 10 January 2019 inauguration, Maduro was pressured to step down by nations and bodies including the Lima Group (excluding Mexico), the United States, and the OAS; this pressure was increased after the new National Assembly of Venezuela was sworn in on 5 January 2019.
The Lima Group (GL; Spanish and Grupo de Lima, French: Groupe de Lima) is a multilateral body that was established following the Lima Declaration on 8 August 2017 in the Peruvian capital of Lima, where representatives of 12 countries met in order to establish a peaceful exit to the Crisis in Venezuela.

Organization of American States

OASPan American UnionOrganisation of American States
In the months leading up to his 10 January 2019 inauguration, Maduro was pressured to step down by nations and bodies including the Lima Group (excluding Mexico), the United States, and the OAS; this pressure was increased after the new National Assembly of Venezuela was sworn in on 5 January 2019. A 2010 OAS report indicated achievements in addressing illiteracy, healthcare and poverty, and economic and social advances.

2018 Venezuelan presidential election

2018 presidential elections2018 reelection2018
It would also allow him to stay in power during the interregnum and skip the 2018 presidential elections, as the process would take at least two years.
Analysts suggested that those policies would further exacerbate the negative effects of the crisis in Venezuela.

2019 Venezuelan blackouts

a series of blackoutsnationwide blackout2019 Venezuelan blackout
During the ongoing 2019 Venezuelan blackouts which started on 7 March, the water distribution system also had shortages.
The ongoing power outages have worsened the crisis in Venezuela and "suffering, cutting off water supplies and leaving hospitals and airports in the dark".

Economy of Cuba

Cuban economyCubaNew Cuban economy
In comparison to historical crises, it is more severe than that of the United States during the Great Depression, of Brazil's 1985–1994 economic crisis, of Zimbabwe's 2008–2009 hyperinflation crisis or that of Russia, Cuba and Albania following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Because of this reliance, the most recent economic Crisis in Venezuela (2012-present), with inflation nearing 800% and GDP shrinking by 19% in 2016, Cuba is not receiving their amount of payment and heavily subsidized oil.

Shortages in Venezuela

shortageschronic shortages of basic goodslarge shortages of goods
Political corruption, chronic shortages of food and medicine, closure of companies, unemployment, deterioration of productivity, authoritarianism, human rights violations, gross economic mismanagement and high dependence on oil have also contributed to the worsening crisis. On 2 June 2010, Chávez declared an "economic war" due to increasing shortages in Venezuela.
Venezuela's over-reliance on imported medical products and professionals has contributed to shortages in healthcare, as has the brain drain due to the crisis in Venezuela.

Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Venezuela)

Supreme Tribunal of JusticeSupreme CourtSupreme Tribunal of Justice (TSJ)
As a result of discontent with the government, in the 2015 parliamentary election the opposition was elected to the majority in the National Assembly, after which the lame duck National Assembly—consisting of Bolivarian officials—filled the Supreme Tribunal of Justice, the highest court in Venezuela, with Maduro allies.
In response to the rejection of the Tribunal, the Luisa Ortega challenged the appointment of the 13 main justices and 21 supplents for considering a lack of suitability and bias in their actions, as well as aggravating the crisis in the country.

2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis

presidential crisisdisputedVenezuelan presidential crisis
The 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis came to a head when the National Assembly stated that the results of the May 2018 presidential election were invalid and declared National Assembly president Juan Guaidó as the acting president, citing several clauses of the 1999 Venezuelan Constitution.
Following the joint report from Human Rights Watch and Johns Hopkins in April 2019, increasing announcements from the United Nations about the scale of the humanitarian crisis, and the softening of Maduro's position on receiving aid, the ICRC tripled its budget for aid to Venezuela.

Boa Vista, Roraima

Boa VistaBoa Vista, RR
Most of the interviews occurred in July or August 2018 in visits by the experts to the Venezuelan border towns of Cúcuta, Colombia and Boa Vista or Pacaraima, Brazil.
In the 2010s, the crisis in Venezuela led to the population swelling by around 50,000 Venezuelan immigrants.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
In the months leading up to his 10 January 2019 inauguration, Maduro was pressured to step down by nations and bodies including the Lima Group (excluding Mexico), the United States, and the OAS; this pressure was increased after the new National Assembly of Venezuela was sworn in on 5 January 2019.
At the turn of the 21st century, several trends have increased the number of foreigners residing in the country such as the 2008–2014 Spanish financial crisis, increasing gang-related violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America, the ongoing political and economic crisis in Venezuela, and the automotive industry boom led by Japanese and South Korean investment.

Russia–Venezuela relations

RussiaRussia-Venezuela military cooperationRussia-Venezuela relations
Maduro's allies—such as Bolivia, El Salvador, Cuba, Nicaragua, Russia and Syria —discouraged foreign intervention in Venezuelan politics and congratulated the president.
In July 2017, during the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, in an article of Russia's Military-Industrial Courier, a journal popular with military officers of the Russian Armed Forces, in the event of a Venezuelan civil war, it was recommended that the Russian government provide military intelligence to the Bolivarian government, establish alliances with ALBA and to assist proxy leftist militant forces, such as colectivos, to maintain the Bolivarian government's power.

Juan Guaidó

Juan GuaidoJuan
The 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis came to a head when the National Assembly stated that the results of the May 2018 presidential election were invalid and declared National Assembly president Juan Guaidó as the acting president, citing several clauses of the 1999 Venezuelan Constitution.
Following the joint report from Human Rights Watch and Johns Hopkins in April 2019, increasing announcements from the United Nations about the scale of the humanitarian crisis, and the softening of Maduro's position on receiving aid, the Red Cross tripled its budget for aid to Venezuela.

Bolivarian Revolution

revolutionBolivarianVenezuelan Revolution
National and international analysts and economists stated that the crisis is not the result of a conflict, natural disaster or sanctions but the consequences of populist policies and corrupt practices that began under the Chávez administration's Bolivarian Revolution and continued under the Maduro administration.

Cuba–Venezuela relations

Cubaan increasingly close relationshipVenezuela
Maduro's allies—such as Bolivia, El Salvador, Cuba, Nicaragua, Russia and Syria —discouraged foreign intervention in Venezuelan politics and congratulated the president.
During the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, trade between the two countries slowed.

Simón Bolívar International Airport (Venezuela)

Simón Bolívar International AirportSimon Bolivar International AirportCaracas
Domestic airlines are having difficulties because of hyperinflation and parts shortages, and most [[Simón Bolívar International Airport (Venezuela)#Chronology of airlines formerly serving Caracas|international airlines have left the country]].
In light of the crisis in Venezuela since 2010, the maglev train is not expected to be operational soon.

2017 Venezuelan constitutional crisis

constitutional crisis2017 constitutional crisisa constitutional crisis in the country
Maduro disavowed the National Assembly in 2017 leading to the 2017 Venezuelan constitutional crisis; as of 2018, some considered the National Assembly the only "legitimate" institution left in the country, and human rights organizations said there were no independent institutional checks on presidential power.

Cúcuta

CucutaCucuta, ColombiaSan José de Cúcuta
Most of the interviews occurred in July or August 2018 in visits by the experts to the Venezuelan border towns of Cúcuta, Colombia and Boa Vista or Pacaraima, Brazil.
Owing to its proximity to Venezuela, the bolívar was accepted by the vast majority of commercial establishments until the rapid devaluation of the Venezuelan currency began after the 2013 recession.

Colectivo (Venezuela)

colectivoscolectivoan October 2014 incident
The colectivos are also involved in food trafficking, selling food on the black market; a colectivo leader told InSight Crime that trafficking food and medicine is as profitable as drug-running, but carries less risk.
InSight Crime says that, as a result of the crisis in Venezuela, some colectivo members "are beginning to waver in their allegiance to the government because they have not been receiving the economic benefits they once did", but that "they fear persecution should they abandon the government’s revolution".

Venezuelan National Guard

Bolivarian National GuardNational GuardNational Guard of Venezuela
A National Guard lieutenant denies this charge, saying corruption would be worse if the military were not involved; government and military officials say the opposition is overstating the corruption problem for their own benefit.
The National Guard has used tear gas and rubber bullets on anti-government demonstrators during the 2010s protests in the crisis in Venezuela, during which 9 members of the National Guard have been killed.

Venezuelan refugee crisis

Bolivarian diasporaa large influxevolving situation
In October 2018, the USNS Comfort departed for an eleven-week operation in Latin America, with a primary mission being to assist countries who received Venezuelan refugees who fled the crisis in Venezuela.

Gold farming

gold farmergame sweatshopgold farmers
From 2017 to 2019, some Venezuelans became video game gold farmers and could be seen playing games such as RuneScape to sell in-game currency or characters for real currency; gamers could make more money than salaried workers by earning only a few dollars per day.
During the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, Venezuelans became gold-farmers and could be seen playing online video games such as RuneScape to sell in-game currency or characters for real currency.