Criteria of truth

criterion of truth
In epistemology, criteria of truth (or tests of truth) are standards and rules used to judge the accuracy of statements and claims.wikipedia
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Truth

trueTruth theorytheory of truth
Understanding a philosophy's criteria of truth is fundamental to a clear evaluation of that philosophy.
The method used to determine whether something is a truth is termed a criterion of truth.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
In epistemology, criteria of truth (or tests of truth) are standards and rules used to judge the accuracy of statements and claims.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Understanding a philosophy's criteria of truth is fundamental to a clear evaluation of that philosophy.

Logic

logicianlogicallogics
The rules of logic have no ability to distinguish truth on their own.

Deception

deceitruseBluffing
An individual must determine what standards distinguish truth from falsehood.

Richard Kirkham

Kirkham, Richard L.Kirkham, Richardtheories of truth
He lists these as the correspondence, coherence and pragmatic theories of truth.

Argument

logical argumentargumentsproof
The opinions of those with significant experience, highly trained or possessing an advanced degree are often considered a form of proof.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
Their knowledge and familiarity within a given field or area of knowledge command respect and allow their statements to be criteria of truth.

Expert witness

expert testimonyexpert evidenceexpert opinion
Despite the wide respect given to expert testimony, it is not an infallible criterion.

Fallibilism

falliblefallibilistfallibility
The main limitation lies not in the standard, but in the human inability to acquire all facts of an experience.

Omniscience

omniscientall-knowingCosmic Awareness
Only an omniscient mind could be aware of all of the relevant information.

Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
There is some value in the criterion if it means innate truth, such as the laws of logic and mathematics.

Flat Earth

flatEarth is flatEarth was flat
For example, general assent once held the earth was flat and that the sun revolved about the earth.

Geocentric model

geocentricPtolemaic systemPtolemaic
For example, general assent once held the earth was flat and that the sun revolved about the earth.

Consistency

consistentinconsistentlogically consistent
Mere consistency is when correct statements do not contradict, but are not necessarily related.

Necessity and sufficiency

necessary conditionnecessary and sufficient conditionsufficient condition
It is inadequate as a criterion because it treats facts in an isolated fashion without true cohesion and integration; nevertheless it remains a necessary condition for the truth of any argument, owing to the law of noncontradiction.

Law of noncontradiction

law of non-contradictionprinciple of non-contradictionPrinciple of contradiction
It is inadequate as a criterion because it treats facts in an isolated fashion without true cohesion and integration; nevertheless it remains a necessary condition for the truth of any argument, owing to the law of noncontradiction.

Formal system

logical systemdeductive systemsystem of logic
Formal logic and mathematical rules are examples of rigorous consistency.

Modus ponens

implicationAffirming the antecedentImplication elimination
An example would be: if all As are Bs and all Bs are Cs, then all As are Cs.

A priori and a posteriori

a prioria posterioriA priori'' and ''a posteriori
For example, the premises are a priori (or self-apparent), requiring another test of truth to employ this criterion.

Objectivity (philosophy)

objectiveobjectivityobjective reality
An additional test beyond this "definition" is required to determine the precise degree of similarity between what is posited and what exists in objective reality.

Social norm

social normsnormsnorm
Most people consciously or unknowingly employ custom as a criterion of truth, based on the assumption that doing what is customary will prevent error.

Mainstream

mainstream audiencemainstream sciencepopular
People stick closely to the principle of custom when they use common vernacular, wear common fashions and so forth; essentially, when they do what is popular.

Emotion

emotionsemotionalemotional state
They are implicitly accepting emotions as a criterion of truth.

Qualia

subjective experienceexperiencequale
Similarly, scholars are trained to put aside such subjective judgments when evaluating knowledge.