Critique of Practical Reason

Kritik der praktischen Vernunft
The Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft) is the second of Immanuel Kant's three critiques, published in 1788.wikipedia
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Critique of Pure Reason

The Critique of Pure ReasonTranscendental AestheticEmpirical realism
It follows on from Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and deals with his moral philosophy.
Also referred to as Kant's "First Critique", it was followed by the Critique of Practical Reason (1788) and the Critique of Judgment (1790).

Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
The Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft) is the second of Immanuel Kant's three critiques, published in 1788.
These include the Universal Natural History (1755), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (1797), and the Critique of Judgment (1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology.

Practical reason

practical reasoningpractical rationalitypractice
Most of these two chapters focus on comparing the situation of theoretical and of practical reason and therefore discusses how the Critique of Practical Reason compares to the Critique of Pure Reason.

Critique of Judgment

Critique of JudgementThe Critique of Judgmentaesthetics
Sometimes referred to as the "third critique," the Critique of Judgment follows the Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and the Critique of Practical Reason (1788).

Hypothetical imperative

hypotheticalhypothetically
To follow the practical law is to be autonomous, whereas to follow any of the other types of contingent laws (or hypothetical imperatives) is to be heteronomous and therefore unfree.

Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethic
It follows on from Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and deals with his moral philosophy. The second Critique exercised a decisive influence over the subsequent development of the field of ethics and moral philosophy, beginning with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Doctrine of Science and becoming, during the 20th century, the principal reference point for deontological moral philosophy.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

FichteJ. G. FichteJohann Fichte
The second Critique exercised a decisive influence over the subsequent development of the field of ethics and moral philosophy, beginning with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Doctrine of Science and becoming, during the 20th century, the principal reference point for deontological moral philosophy.

Gnosology

WissenschaftslehreDoctrine of Sciencegnoseological
The second Critique exercised a decisive influence over the subsequent development of the field of ethics and moral philosophy, beginning with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Doctrine of Science and becoming, during the 20th century, the principal reference point for deontological moral philosophy.

Speculative reason

pure reasonTheoretical reasonspeculative
Most of these two chapters focus on comparing the situation of theoretical and of practical reason and therefore discusses how the Critique of Practical Reason compares to the Critique of Pure Reason.

Ontological argument

ontological proofontologicalOntological argument for the existence of God
Kant once again invites his dissatisfied critics to actually provide a proof of God's existence and shows that this is impossible because the various arguments (ontological, cosmological and teleological) for God's existence all depend essentially on the idea that existence is a predicate inherent to the concepts to which it is applied.

Cosmological argument

Prime Movercosmologicalfirst cause
Kant once again invites his dissatisfied critics to actually provide a proof of God's existence and shows that this is impossible because the various arguments (ontological, cosmological and teleological) for God's existence all depend essentially on the idea that existence is a predicate inherent to the concepts to which it is applied.

Teleological argument

argument from designdesign argumentteleological
Kant once again invites his dissatisfied critics to actually provide a proof of God's existence and shows that this is impossible because the various arguments (ontological, cosmological and teleological) for God's existence all depend essentially on the idea that existence is a predicate inherent to the concepts to which it is applied.

Categorical imperative

CategoricalKant's Categorical Imperativecategorical freedom
The content of the universal moral law, the categorical imperative, must be nothing over and above the law's form, otherwise it will be dependent on the desires that the law's possessor has.

Autonomy

autonomousnational autonomysemi-autonomous
To follow the practical law is to be autonomous, whereas to follow any of the other types of contingent laws (or hypothetical imperatives) is to be heteronomous and therefore unfree.

Heteronomy

heteronomousheteronomous will
To follow the practical law is to be autonomous, whereas to follow any of the other types of contingent laws (or hypothetical imperatives) is to be heteronomous and therefore unfree.

Moral absolutism

moral lawabsolutismabsolutist
The moral law, in Kant's view, is equivalent to the idea of freedom.

Good and evil

goodgood versus evilgoodness
This is to be contrasted with two alternative, mistaken approaches to moral epistemology: moral empiricism, which takes moral good and evil to be something we can apprehend from the world and moral mysticism, which takes morality to be a matter of sensing some supernatural property, such as the approbation of God.

Deontological ethics

deontologicaldeontologymoral obligation
The second Critique exercised a decisive influence over the subsequent development of the field of ethics and moral philosophy, beginning with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Doctrine of Science and becoming, during the 20th century, the principal reference point for deontological moral philosophy.

Antinomy

antinomiesAntinomeantinomian
Pure reason, when it attempts to reach beyond its limits into the unconditional realm of the noumenon is bound to fail and the result is the creation of antinomies of reason.

Summum bonum

highest goodsupreme goodGood
In this case, the antinomy consists in the fact that the object of pure practical reason must be the highest good (Summum bonum).

Cynicism (contemporary)

cynicalcynicismcynic
The cynic or utilitarian might be doubtful as to whether it is truly possible for human beings to act out of an "obligation to duty."

Utilitarianism

utilitarianutilitariansutilitarian ethics
The cynic or utilitarian might be doubtful as to whether it is truly possible for human beings to act out of an "obligation to duty."