Croatian language

CroatianCroathrHrvatskiCroatian literary languagehrvstandard CroatianlanguageOld Croatiancro.
Croatian (hrvatski ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries.wikipedia
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Croats

CroatianCroatCroatians
Croatian (hrvatski ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries.
The Croatian language is official in Croatia, the European Union, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Shtokavian

Shtokavian dialectIkavianŠtokavian
Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin.
Shtokavian, Stokavian or Štokavian (štokavski / штокавски, ) is the prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language and the basis of its Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Montenegrin standards.

Vojvodina

Autonomous Province of VojvodinaVoivodinaAP Vojvodina
Croatian (hrvatski ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries.

Eastern Herzegovinian dialect

Eastern HerzegovinianEastern Herzegovina
Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin.
It is the dialectal basis for all modern literary Serbo-Croatian standards: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin (the latter only partially codified).

Bosnian language

BosnianBosniakbos
Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin.
Bosnian is one of three such varieties considered official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with Croatian and Serbian.

Montenegrin language

MontenegrinMontenegrin Cyrilliclanguage
Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin.
Montenegrin is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Serbian, and Bosnian.

Gaj's Latin alphabet

Serbian LatinLatinCroatian alphabet
Croatian is written in Gaj's Latin alphabet.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for writing Serbo-Croatian and all of its standard varieties: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin.

Serbian language

SerbiansrSerbian:
Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin.
Standard Serbian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian (more specifically on the dialects of Šumadija-Vojvodina and Eastern Herzegovina ), which is also the basis of standard Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin varieties and therefore the Declaration on the Common Language of Croats, Bosniaks, Serbs and Montenegrins was issued in 2017.

Kajkavian

Kajkavian dialectKajkavian languageKajkavian (''kajkavski'')
Besides the Shtokavian dialect, on which Standard Croatian is based, there are two other main dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia, Chakavian and Kajkavian.
There are differing opinions over whether Kajkavian is best considered a dialect of Croatian (standardized or vernacular) or a fully-fledged language of its own, as it is only partially mutually intelligible with other dialects and bears more similarities to Slovene (especially the Prekmurje dialect) than to the prestige Shtokavian dialect (which forms the basis of the national normative standards of Serbo-Croatian) in terms of phonology and vocabulary.

Istria

Istrian peninsulaIstrianHistria
It is still used now in parts of Istria, which became a crossroads of various mixtures of Chakavian with Ekavian/Ijekavian/Ikavian dialects.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria;, Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), Ίστρια (Ancient Greek), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.

Croatia

Republic of CroatiaCroatianCRO
Croatian (hrvatski ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries.
In 1967, Croatian authors and linguists published a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language demanding greater autonomy for Croatian language.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union.
The European Union has 24 official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish.

Serbia

SRBRepublic of SerbiaSerbian
Croatian (hrvatski ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries.
Recognised minority languages are: Hungarian, Bosnian, Slovak, Croatian, Albanian, Romanian, Bulgarian and Rusyn.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

BosniaBosnia-HerzegovinaBosnian
Croatian (hrvatski ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries.
However, academics Hilary Footitt and Michael Kelly note the Dayton Agreement states it is "done in Bosnian, Croatian, English and Serbian", and they describe this as the "de facto recognition of three official languages" at the state level.

Comparison of standard Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian

Differences between Serbo-Croatian standard varietiesComparison of standard Bosnian, Croatian and SerbianDifferences
Differences between various standard forms of Serbo-Croatian are often exaggerated for political reasons.
Standard Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian are different national variants and official registers of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language.

Zadar Philological School

While it was dominant over the rival Rijeka Philological School and Zadar Philological Schools, its influence waned with the rise of the Croatian Vukovians (at the end of the 19th century).
Zadar Philological School (Zadarska filološka škola) was a 19th-century philological school that operated in Zadar, offering a set of solutions for the issues involved in the standardization of Croatian literary language.

Zrinski family

ZrinskiHouse of ZrinskiZrínyi
In the late medieval period up to the 17th century, the majority of semi-autonomous Croatia was ruled by two domestic dynasties of princes (banovi), the Zrinski and the Frankopan, which were linked by inter-marriage.
It is certain, that Nikola Zrinski spoke at least Croatian, Hungarian, Italian, Turkish and of course Latin.

Official language

official languagesofficialadministrative language
It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union.
When Croatia declared independence (1991) it defined its official language as Croatian, and Serbia likewise defined its official language as Serbian.

Ljudevit Gaj

Gaj
The leader of the Illyrian movement Ljudevit Gaj standardized the Latin alphabet in 1830–1850 and worked to bring about a standardized orthography.
The book was printed bilingually, in Croatian and German.

Illyrian movement

Croatian national revivalIllyrianIllyrism
The Illyrian movement was a 19th-century pan-South Slavic political and cultural movement in Croatia that had the goal to standardize the regionally differentiated and orthographically inconsistent literary languages in Croatia, and finally merge them into a common South Slavic literary language.
As opposed to the alphabet which is in a slightly modified form used to this day for Croatian, grammatical and orthographic practices advocated by Illyrians provoked resentment and opposition by some contemporaries as well as by future generations of linguists.

Lupac

ClocoticiRafnicVodnic
Additionally, it has co-official status alongside Romanian in the communes of Carașova and Lupac, Romania.
Lupac (Romanian: Lupac; Croatian: Lupak; Kiskrassó) is a commune in Caraș-Severin County, Banat, Romania.

Chakavian

Chakavian dialectČakavianČakavian dialect
Besides the Shtokavian dialect, on which Standard Croatian is based, there are two other main dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia, Chakavian and Kajkavian.
The tradition of the Chakavian literary language had declined in the 18th century, but it has helped shape the standard Croatian language in many ways (chiefly in morphology and phonetics), and Chakavian dialectal poetry is still a vital part of Croatian literature.

Matica hrvatska

Matica ilirskaCroatian Cultural AssociationMatrix Croatica
Also notable are the recommendations of Matica hrvatska, the national publisher and promoter of Croatian heritage, and the Lexicographical institute Miroslav Krleža, as well as the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
It was stated that its main purpose was: "Publication of old classical Illyrian, especially those from Dubrovnik, and other useful books from the latest writers on organic (Croatian) language."

Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics

In 2013, a Hrvatski pravopis by the Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics received an official sole seal of approval from the Ministry of Education.
The Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje) is an official institute in Croatia whose purpose is to preserve and foster the Croatian language.

Dialects of Serbo-Croatian

Croatian dialectsSerbo-Croatian dialectsSerbian
The dialects of Serbo-Croatian include the vernacular forms of Serbo-Croatian as a whole or as part of its standard varieties: Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian.