Crohn's disease

Crohn’s diseaseCrohn diseaseCrohnregional enteritisKrohn's diseaseCrohn's colitisChron's diseaseMorbus CrohnCDCrohn's disease (CD)
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus.wikipedia
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Management of Crohn's disease

Treatment of Crohn's diseaseTreatment options
Treatment options are intended to help with symptoms, maintain remission, and prevent relapse.
Since Crohn's disease is an immune system condition, it cannot be cured by medication or surgery.

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachabdominal discomfort
Symptoms often include abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss.

Erythema nodosum

erythema nodosum leprosumAcute erythema nodosumChronic erythema nodosum
The skin rashes may be due to infections as well as pyoderma gangrenosum or erythema nodosum.

Uveitis

iritisiridocyclitisanterior uveitis
Other complications outside the gastrointestinal tract may include anemia, skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, and tiredness.

Arthritis

arthriticjoint inflammationarthritic changes
Other complications outside the gastrointestinal tract may include anemia, skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, and tiredness.

Methotrexate

amethopterin(M)'''ethotrexateAbitrexate
In those newly diagnosed, a corticosteroid may be used for a brief period of time to rapidly improve symptoms alongside another medication such as either methotrexate or a thiopurine used to prevent recurrence.
Types of autoimmune diseases it is used for include psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn's disease.

Burrill Bernard Crohn

Dr. Burrill B. Crohn
The disease was named after gastroenterologist Burrill Bernard Crohn, who in 1932, together with two other colleagues at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, described a series of patients with inflammation of the terminal ileum of the small intestine, the area most commonly affected by the illness.
Burrill Bernard Crohn (June 13, 1884 – July 29, 1983) was an American gastroenterologist and made the first major advance to identify the disease that now bears his name.

Colitis

pseudomembranous colitisinfectious colitisbacterial colitis
Ileitis typically results in large-volume, watery feces, while colitis may result in a smaller volume of feces of higher frequency.

Ulcerative colitis

colitis ulcerosaColitisinflammatory colitis
Because of the 'patchy' nature of the gastrointestinal disease and the depth of tissue involvement, initial symptoms can be more subtle than those of ulcerative colitis.
It is a kind of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) along with Crohn's disease and microscopic colitis.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Symptoms often include abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss.
This occurs with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, and other severe infections such as E. coli or other forms of food poisoning.

Bloating

abdominal bloatingbloatedbloat
Flatulence and bloating may also add to the intestinal discomfort.
Specific medical conditions like Crohn's disease or bowel obstruction can also contribute to the amount of stomach bloating experienced.

Fecal incontinence

incontinenceFecal leakagefaecal incontinence
Fecal incontinence may accompany perianal Crohn's disease.
The most common causes are thought to be immediate or delayed damage from childbirth, complications from prior anorectal surgery (especially involving the anal sphincters or hemorrhoidal vascular cushions), altered bowel habits (e.g., caused by irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, food intolerance, or constipation with overflow incontinence), and receptive anal sex.

Colonoscopy

colonoscopiescolonoscopecolonoscopes
Checking for bowel cancer via colonoscopy is recommended every few years, starting eight years after the disease has begun.
In most cases the positive result is just due to hemorrhoids; however, it can also be due to diverticulosis, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), colon cancer, or polyps.

Biopsy

biopsiestissue biopsybiopsied
Diagnosis is based on a number of findings including biopsy and appearance of the bowel wall, medical imaging and description of the disease.
In inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), frequent biopsies are taken to assess the activity of disease and to assess changes that precede malignancy.

Malabsorption

malabsorption syndromeintestinal malabsorptionmalabsorption of nutrients
People with extensive small intestine disease may also have malabsorption of carbohydrates or lipids, which can further exacerbate weight loss.
For example, pain is common in patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer and Crohn's disease, but it is absent in many patients with coeliac disease or postgastrectomy malabsorption.

Bowel obstruction

intestinal obstructionobstructionsmall bowel obstruction
Bowel obstruction may occur as a complication of chronic inflammation, and those with the disease are at greater risk of bowel cancer.
Small bowel obstruction caused by Crohn's disease, peritoneal carcinomatosis, sclerosing peritonitis, radiation enteritis, and postpartum bowel obstruction are typically treated conservatively, i.e. without surgery.

Corticosteroid

corticosteroidssteroidssteroid
In those newly diagnosed, a corticosteroid may be used for a brief period of time to rapidly improve symptoms alongside another medication such as either methotrexate or a thiopurine used to prevent recurrence.

Failure to thrive

growth failurepoor growthfailed to thrive
Among children, growth failure is common.

Orofacial granulomatosis

Cheilitis granulomatosaFull width gingivitisgranulomatous cheilitis
In the oral cavity people with Crohn's may develop cheilitis granulomatosa and other forms of orofacial granulomatosis, pyostomatitis vegetans, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, apical periodontitis, geographic tongue, and migratory stomatitis in higher prevalence than the general population.
The underlying cause of the condition is not completely understood, and there is disagreement as to how it relates to Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis.

Abscess

abscessespustularCutaneous abscess
While surgery should be used as little as possible, it is necessary to address some abscesses, certain bowel obstructions, and cancers. Itchiness or pain around the anus may be suggestive of inflammation, fistulization or abscess around the anal area or anal fissure.
Perianal abscesses can be seen in patients with for example inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease) or diabetes.

Thiopurine

In those newly diagnosed, a corticosteroid may be used for a brief period of time to rapidly improve symptoms alongside another medication such as either methotrexate or a thiopurine used to prevent recurrence.
The thiopurine drugs are purine antimetabolites widely used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, autoimmune disorders (e.g., Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis), and organ transplant recipients.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

autoimmune haemolytic anaemiaautoimmune haemolytic anemiaanemia, hemolytic, autoimmune
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, a condition in which the immune system attacks the red blood cells, is also more common in Crohn's disease and may cause fatigue, a pale appearance, and other symptoms common in anemia.
The most common causes of secondary warm-type AIHA include lymphoproliferative disorders (e.g., chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma) and other autoimmune disorders (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis).

Gastrointestinal tract

intestinegastrointestinaldigestive tract
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus.
Inflammatory bowel disease is an inflammatory condition affecting the bowel walls, and includes the subtypes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Folate

folic acidfolate biosynthesisone carbon pool by folate
People with Crohn's disease may develop anemia due to vitamin B 12, folate, iron deficiency, or due to anemia of chronic disease.
Folate deficiency can be caused by unhealthy diets that do not include enough vegetables and other folate-rich foods; diseases in which folates are not well absorbed in the digestive system (such as Crohn's disease or celiac disease); some genetic disorders that affect levels of folate; and certain medicines (such as phenytoin, sulfasalazine, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole).

Anal fissure

anal fissuresrectal fissureAnal bleeding
Itchiness or pain around the anus may be suggestive of inflammation, fistulization or abscess around the anal area or anal fissure.