Crohn's disease

Crohn’s diseaseCrohnchronregional enteritiscrohn diseaseCrohn’sthe disease that now bears his nameileocolitisLeśniowski-Crohn's diseaseCrohn's colitis
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.wikipedia
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Management of Crohn's disease

Treatment options
Treatment options are intended to help with symptoms, maintain remission, and prevent relapse.
Since Crohn's disease is an immune system condition, it cannot be cured by medication or surgery.

Erythema nodosum

erythema nodosum leprosumerythema nodosum leprosum (ENL)acute erythema nodosum
The skin rashes may be due to infections as well as pyoderma gangrenosum or erythema nodosum.
Ulcerating forms, seen in Crohn's disease

Methotrexate

amethopterinFolexTrexall
In those newly diagnosed, a corticosteroid may be used for a brief period of time to rapidly improve symptoms alongside another medication such as either methotrexate or a thiopurine used to prevent recurrence. Medications used to treat the symptoms of Crohn's disease include 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) formulations, prednisone, immunomodulators such as azathioprine (given as the prodrug for 6-mercaptopurine), methotrexate, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab, vedolizumab, and natalizumab.
Types of autoimmune diseases it is used for include psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn's disease.

Burrill Bernard Crohn

Dr. Burrill B. Crohn
The disease was named after gastroenterologist Burrill Bernard Crohn, who, in 1932, together with two other colleagues at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, described a series of patients with inflammation of the terminal ileum of the small intestine, the area most commonly affected by the illness.
Burrill Bernard Crohn (June 13, 1884 – July 29, 1983 ) was an American gastroenterologist and made the first major advance to identify the disease that now bears his name.

Fecal incontinence

incontinencefaecal incontinencefecal leakage
Fecal incontinence may accompany perianal Crohn's disease.
The most common causes are thought to be immediate or delayed damage from childbirth, complications from prior anorectal surgery (especially involving the anal sphincters or hemorrhoidal vascular cushions), altered bowel habits (e.g., caused by irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, food intolerance, or constipation with overflow incontinence), and receptive anal sex.

Colitis

pseudomembranous colitiscolon inflammationinfectious colitis
Colitis may result in a smaller volume of feces of higher frequency.
The cause of the inflammation in the colon is undetermined; for example, colitis may be applied to Crohn's disease at a time when the diagnosis is unknown, or

Ulcerative colitis

colitis ulcerosainflammatory colitiscolitis
Although the association is greater in the context of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease may also be associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis, a type of inflammation of the bile ducts.
It is a kind of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) along with Crohn's disease and microscopic colitis.

Arthritis

arthriticjoint inflammationjoint pain
Other complications may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract and include anemia, skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, and tiredness.
Inflammatory bowel disease (including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis)

Uveitis

iritisiridocyclitisanterior uveitis
Other complications may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract and include anemia, skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, and tiredness.
Crohn's disease

Orofacial granulomatosis

cheilitis granulomatosagranulomatous cheilitis
In the oral cavity people with Crohn's may develop cheilitis granulomatosa and other forms of orofacial granulomatosis, pyostomatitis vegetans, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, geographic tongue, and migratory stomatitis in higher prevalence than the general population.
The underlying cause of the condition is not completely understood, and there is disagreement as to how it relates to Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis.

Abdominal pain

stomach achestomachachestomach pain
Signs and symptoms often include abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss.
Inflammatory: gastroenteritis, appendicitis, gastritis, esophagitis, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, microscopic colitis

Malabsorption

malabsorption syndromeintestinal malabsorptionmalabsorption of nutrients
People with extensive small intestine disease may also have malabsorption of carbohydrates or lipids, which can further exacerbate weight loss.
For example, pain is common in patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer and Crohn's disease, but it is absent in many patients with coeliac disease or postgastrectomy malabsorption.

Colonoscopy

colonoscopiescolonoscopiccolonoscope
Checking for bowel cancer via colonoscopy is recommended every few years, starting eight years after the disease has begun.
In most cases the positive result is just due to hemorrhoids; however, it can also be due to diverticulosis, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), colon cancer, or polyps.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Signs and symptoms often include abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss.
This occurs with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, and other severe infections such as E. coli or other forms of food poisoning.

Skin tag

skin tagsacrochordonmolluscum fibrosum
Perianal skin tags are also common in Crohn's disease and may appear with or without the presence of colorectal polyps.
Perianal skin tags can be associated with Crohn's disease.

Biopsy

biopsiestissue biopsybiopsied
Diagnosis is based on a number of findings including biopsy and appearance of the bowel wall, medical imaging and description of the disease.
In inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), frequent biopsies are taken to assess the activity of disease and to assess changes that precede malignancy.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

autoimmune haemolytic anemiaautoimmune haemolytic anaemiaautoimmune haemolytic anaemias
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, a condition in which the immune system attacks the red blood cells, is also more common in Crohn's disease and may cause fatigue, a pale appearance, and other symptoms common in anemia.
The most common causes of secondary warm-type AIHA include lymphoproliferative disorders (e.g., chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma) and other autoimmune disorders (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis).

Peptic ulcer disease

peptic ulcerstomach ulcerulcer
Ulceration is an outcome seen in highly active disease.
Other less common causes include tobacco smoking, stress due to serious illness, Behcet disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, Crohn disease and liver cirrhosis, among others.

Abscess

abscessespustularincisional abscess
While surgery should be used as little as possible, it is necessary to address some abscesses, certain bowel obstructions, and cancers. Itchiness or pain around the anus may be suggestive of inflammation, fistulization or abscess around the anal area or anal fissure.
Perianal abscesses can be seen in patients with for example inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease) or diabetes.

Corticosteroid

corticosteroidssteroidssteroid
In those newly diagnosed, a corticosteroid may be used for a brief period of time to rapidly improve symptoms alongside another medication such as either methotrexate or a thiopurine used to prevent recurrence.
Crohn's disease

Bowel obstruction

intestinal obstructionobstructionsmall bowel obstruction
Bowel obstruction may occur as a complication of chronic inflammation, and those with the disease are at greater risk of bowel cancer.
Crohn's disease causing adhesions or inflammatory strictures

Thiopurine

thiopurines
In those newly diagnosed, a corticosteroid may be used for a brief period of time to rapidly improve symptoms alongside another medication such as either methotrexate or a thiopurine used to prevent recurrence.
The thiopurine drugs are purine antimetabolites widely used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, autoimmune disorders (e.g., Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis), and organ transplant recipients.

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Mycobacterium avium'' subspecies ''paratuberculosisMycobacterium paratuberculosisM. avium paratuberculosis
A number of studies have suggested a causal role for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), which causes a similar disease, Johne's disease, in cattle.
It is the causative agent of Johne's disease, which affects ruminants such as cattle, and suspected causative agent in human Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

Anal fissure

fissurectomyAnal bleedingrectal fissure
Itchiness or pain around the anus may be suggestive of inflammation, fistulization or abscess around the anal area or anal fissure.
Crohn's disease

Azathioprine

Medications used to treat the symptoms of Crohn's disease include 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) formulations, prednisone, immunomodulators such as azathioprine (given as the prodrug for 6-mercaptopurine), methotrexate, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab, vedolizumab, and natalizumab.
It is used in rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and in kidney transplants to prevent rejection.