Cronquist system

CronquistCronquist classification (1981)broad conceptCronquist classification systemCronquist's classificationscheme
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.wikipedia
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Arthur Cronquist

CronquistArthur John CronquistArthur J. Cronquist
It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988) and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) (see Bibliography).
He is considered one of the most influential botanists of the 20th century, largely due to his formulation of the Cronquist system as well as being the primary co-author to the Flora of the Pacific Northwest, still the most up to date flora for three northwest U.S. States to date.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group

APGAPG IIAPG II system
While the scheme was widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998.
Examples are the Engler system in continental Europe, the Bentham & Hooker system in Britain (particularly influential because it was used by Kew), the Takhtajan system in the former Soviet Union and countries within its sphere of influence and the Cronquist system in the United States.

List of systems of plant taxonomy

systemssystem of plant taxonomysystems of plant taxonomy
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.
The Cronquist system is well known for existing in many versions.

Dicotyledon

dicotdicotyledonsdicots
Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
If treated as a class, as in the Cronquist system, they could be called the Magnoliopsida after the type genus Magnolia.

Liliopsida

LiliataeBurmannia disticha
Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
Although in principle it is true that circumscription of this class will vary with the taxonomic system being used, in practice this name is very strongly linked to the Cronquist system, and the allied Takhtajan system.

Magnoliopsida

Magnoliopsida indet.Pinopsida
Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
In the Takhtajan system and the Cronquist system the name was used for the group known as dicotyledons.

Arecales

ArecanaeAreciflorae
The Cronquist system of 1981 assigned the order to the subclass Arecidae in the class Liliopsida (= monocotyledons).

Flowering plant

Angiospermsflowering plantsangiosperm
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.
The Takhtajan system and Cronquist system treat this group at the rank of division, leading to the name Magnoliophyta (from the family name Magnoliaceae).

Triuridales

TriuridanaeTriuridiflorae
Triuridales was an order of flower plants that was used in the Cronquist system, in the subclass Alismatidae, with this circumscription:

Arales

AranaeArifloraeSpathiflorae
The name was used in the Cronquist system for an order placed in subclass Arecidae, circumscribed as (1981):

Hamamelidaceae

witch hazel familyhamamelididshammamelid
An earlier system, the Cronquist system, recognized Hamamelidaceae in the Hamamelidales order.

Commelinids

Commelinidaecommelinidcommelinid monocots
The name was also used in the 1981 Cronquist system.

Asphodelaceae

XanthorrhoeaceaeAsphodeliAsphodèles
In some of the older systems of plant taxonomy, such as the Cronquist system, the plants that now form the family Dasypogonaceae were also considered to belong to this family.

Hamamelidales

Hamamelidales is an order of flowering plants formerly accepted in a number of systems of plant taxonomy, including the Cronquist system published in 1968 and 1988.

Liliaceae

lily familylilieslily
Over time the family became increasingly broad and somewhat arbitrarily defined as all species of plants with six tepals and a superior ovary, eventually coming to encompass about 300 genera and 4,500 species within the order Liliales under the Cronquist system (1981).

Papaveraceae

poppy familypoppybleeding heart
Thus the Cronquist system of 1981 recognised the Fumariaceae as a separate family, despite their close phylogenetic relationship to the Papaveraceae sensu stricto.

Fagales

Myricalesfagalean
The older Cronquist system only included four families (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae, Ticodendraceae; Corylaceae now being included within Betulaceae); this arrangement is followed by, for example, the World Checklist of selected plant families.

Hamamelididae

HamamelidaeAmentiferae
A well-known system that used the name Hamamelididae is the Cronquist system, although in the disallowed spelling Hamamelidae.

Smilacaceae

greenbriar familygreenbrier familySmilacales

Zingiberales

ZingiberanaeCannalesZingiberales sp.
In contrast the Cronquist system retained Scitamineae as the name for this order with eight families, but organised the order in the subclass Zingiberidae of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).

Aristolochiales

In the Cronquist, Dahlgren, Goldberg and Reveal systems it is composed of a single family, the Aristolochiaceae.

Theales

TheanaeTheiflorae
The name was used by the Cronquist system for an order placed in subclass Dilleniidae, in the 1981 version of the system the circumscription was: