Cronquist system

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The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.wikipedia
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Arthur Cronquist

CronquistA. CronquistArt Cronquist
It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988) and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) (see Bibliography).
He is considered one of the most influential botanists of the 20th century, largely due to his formulation of the Cronquist system as well as being the primary co-author to the Flora of the Pacific Northwest, still the most up to date flora for three northwest U.S. States to date.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group

While the scheme was widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998.
Examples are the Engler system in continental Europe, the Bentham & Hooker system in Britain (particularly influential because it was used by Kew), the Takhtajan system in the former Soviet Union and countries within its sphere of influence and the Cronquist system in the United States.

List of systems of plant taxonomy

systemssystem of plant taxonomysystems of plant taxonomy
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.
The Cronquist system is well known for existing in many versions.


Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
If treated as a class, as in the Cronquist system, they could be called the Magnoliopsida after the type genus Magnolia.


Burmannia disticha
Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
Although in principle it is true that circumscription of this class will vary with the taxonomic system being used, in practice this name is very strongly linked to the Cronquist system, and the allied Takhtajan system.


Subclass Commelinidae 8 orders
A well-known system that did use this name is the Cronquist system (1981), but it was also used by the Takhtajan system:


Magnoliopsida indet.
Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
In the Takhtajan system and the Cronquist system the name was used for the group known as dicotyledons.


Order Arecales
The Cronquist system of 1981 assigned the order to the subclass Arecidae in the class Liliopsida (= monocotyledons).

Flowering plant

Angiospermsflowering plantsangiosperm
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.
The Takhtajan system and Cronquist system treat this group at the rank of division, leading to the name Magnoliophyta (from the family name Magnoliaceae).


Order Triuridales
Triuridales was an order of flower plants that was used in the Cronquist system, in the subclass Alismatidae, with this circumscription:


Order Arales
The name was used in the Cronquist system for an order placed in subclass Arecidae, circumscribed as (1981):


Order Alismatales
The Cronquist system (1981) places the Alismatales in subclass Alismatidae, class Liliopsida [= monocotyledons] and includes only three families as shown:


1) Subclass Magnoliidae (mostly basal dicots)
The Cronquist system (1981) used the name Magnoliidae for one of six subclasses (within class Magnoliopsida = dicotyledons).


witch hazel familyhamamelididshammamelid
57) Hamamelidaceae
The earlier Cronquist system recognized Hamamelidaceae in the Hamamelidales order.


Family Xanthorrhoeaceae
In some of the older systems of plant taxonomy, such as the Cronquist system, the plants that now form the family Dasypogonaceae were also considered to belong to this family.


53) Order Hamamelidales
Hamamelidales is an order of flowering plants formerly accepted in a number of systems of plant taxonomy, including the Cronquist system published in 1968 and 1988.


lily familylilieslily
Family Liliaceae
Over time the Liliaceae became increasingly broadly, and somewhat arbitrarily defined as all species of plants with six tepals and a superior ovary, eventually coming to encompass about 300 genera and 4,500 species, within the order Liliales in the Cronquist system (1981).


poppy familypoppybleeding heart
47) Papaveraceae
Thus the Cronquist system of 1981 recognised the Fumariaceae as a separate family, despite their close phylogenetic relationship to the Papaveraceae sensu stricto.


Zingiberales sp.zingiberaleans
Order Zingiberales
In contrast the Cronquist system retained Scitamineae as the name for this order with eight families, but organized the order in the subclass Zingiberidae of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).


77) Order Myricales
The older Cronquist system only included four families (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae, Ticodendraceae; Corylaceae now being included within Betulaceae); this arrangement is followed by, for example, the World Checklist of selected plant families.


2) Order Magnoliales
The Cronquist system (1981) placed the order in the subclass Magnoliidae of class Magnoliopsida (=dicotyledons) and used this circumscription:


49) Subclass Hamamelidae [sic: correctly Hamamelididae]
A well-known system that used the name Hamamelididae is the Cronquist system, although in the disallowed spelling Hamamelidae.


greenbriar familygreenbrier familycatbriar family
Family Smilacaceae
The Cronquist system, of 1981, recognized this family and placed it in order Liliales, in subclass Liliidae in class Liliopsida [=monocotyledons] of division Magnoliophyta [=angiosperms].


26) Order Aristolochiales
In the Cronquist, Dahlgren, Goldberg and Reveal systems it is composed of a single family, the Aristolochiaceae.


Order Commelinales
The older Cronquist system of 1981, which was based purely on morphological data, placed the order in subclass Commelinidae of class Liliopsida and included the families Commelinaceae, Mayacaceae, Rapateaceae and Xyridaceae.