Cross-examination

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In law, cross-examination is the interrogation of a witness called by one's opponent.wikipedia
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Witness

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In law, cross-examination is the interrogation of a witness called by one's opponent.
The opposing side then may ask their own questions in what is called cross-examination.

Redirect examination

re-examinedredirectre-direct
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).
Cross-examination

Leading question

leading questionsleadingquestions biased
Since a witness called by the opposing party is presumed to be hostile, cross-examination does permit leading questions.
An examiner may generally ask leading questions of a hostile witness or on cross-examination (to elicit testimony which the witness might be reluctant to volunteer), but not on direct examination (to "coach" the witness to provide a particular answer).

Adversarial system

adversarialadversarial court systemadversarial procedure
Indeed, in the United States, cross-examination is seen as a core part of the entire adversarial system of justice, in that it "is the principal means by which the believability of a witness and the truth of his testimony are tested."
As an accused is not compelled to give evidence in a criminal adversarial proceeding, they may not be questioned by a prosecutor or judge unless they choose to do so. However, should they decide to testify, they are subject to cross-examination and could be found guilty of perjury.

Hostile witness

hostileadverse witnessgive false statements
Since a witness called by the opposing party is presumed to be hostile, cross-examination does permit leading questions.
As a rule, leading questions are generally only allowed during cross-examination, but a hostile witness is an exception to this rule.

Law

legallawslegal theory
In law, cross-examination is the interrogation of a witness called by one's opponent.

United Kingdom

British🇬🇧UK
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

Australia

🇦🇺AUSAustralian
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

Canada

🇨🇦CanadianCAN
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

South Africa

🇿🇦South AfricanRepublic of South Africa
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

India

🇮🇳IndianIND
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

Pakistan

🇵🇰PakistaniPAK
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

Direct examination

directexamination-in-chiefevidence in chief
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

England

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿EnglishENG
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

Scotland

Scottish🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿Scots
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

Hong Kong

🇭🇰HKGHong Kong SAR
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

Federal judiciary of the United States

federal courtfederal courtsfederal
In the United States federal Courts, a cross-examining attorney is typically not permitted to ask questions that do not pertain to the testimony offered during direct examination, but most state courts do permit a lawyer to cross-examine a witness on matters not raised during direct examination.

Lawyer

attorneylawyersattorneys
In the United States federal Courts, a cross-examining attorney is typically not permitted to ask questions that do not pertain to the testimony offered during direct examination, but most state courts do permit a lawyer to cross-examine a witness on matters not raised during direct examination.

State court (United States)

state courtstate courtsstate
In the United States federal Courts, a cross-examining attorney is typically not permitted to ask questions that do not pertain to the testimony offered during direct examination, but most state courts do permit a lawyer to cross-examine a witness on matters not raised during direct examination.

Trial advocacy

Cross-examination is a key component in a trial and the topic is given substantial attention during courses on Trial Advocacy.

Closing argument

Summationclosing statementClosing
Typically during an attorney's closing argument he will repeat any admissions made by witnesses that favor their case.

Jury selection

jury poolvenire venire
Another key component affecting a trial outcome is the jury selection, in which attorneys will attempt to include jurors from whom they feel they can get a favorable response or at the least unbiased fair decision.

Rape shield law

rape shield lawsshield lawprotects complainants in prosecutions for sexual offences
A rape shield law is a law that limits the ability to introduce evidence or cross-examine rape complainants about their past sexual behavior.

Moot court

mootingmootsmoot
Moot court does not involve actual testimony by witnesses, cross-examination, or the presentation of evidence, but is focused solely on the application of the law to a common set of evidentiary assumptions, facts, and clarifications/corrections to which the competitors are introduced.

National Educational Debate Association

Several aspects of NEDA make it distinct from other debate organizations, including the ability to decide topicality at the end of the constructive speeches, the ability of judges to give "double losses" in those cases in which neither team argues in a manner consistent befitting a public advocate, closed cross examination, and a focus on argumentation and delivery.